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Ramachandran L.,Amala Cancer Research Center | Nair C.K.K.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science and Research Center
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Tempol (TPL) under in vitro conditions reduced the extent of gammaradiation induced membrane lipid peroxidation and disappearance of covalently closed circular form of plasmid pBR322. TPL protected cellularDNA fromradiation-induced damage in various tissues under ex vivo and in vivo conditions as evidenced by comet assay. TPL also prevented radiation induced micronuclei formation (in peripheral blood leucocytes) and chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrowcells) in whole body irradiated mice. TPL enhanced the rate of repair of cellular DNA (blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells) damage when administered immediately after radiation exposure as revealed from the increased Cellular DNA Repair Index (CRI). The studies thus provided compelling evidence to reveal the effectiveness of TPL to protect hematopoietic system from radiation injury. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Chandrasekharan D.K.,Amala Cancer Research Center | Nair C.K.K.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science and Research Center
Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals | Year: 2012

Silver nanoparticles (SN) of particle size of less than 50 nm were dispersed in an aqueous solution of Pluronic F127 and complexed with the phytoceutical, glyzyrrhizic acid (GLY). Radioprotecting ability of the obtained nanoparticle-glyzyrrhizic acid complex (SN-GLY) was evaluated in an in vivo model using Swiss albino mice. The potential of the complex as an adjuvant during radiotherapy was also analyzed in tumor-bearing mice. The administration of SN-GLY, SN, and GLY protected the hemopoetic and gastrointestinal system against radiation-induced damages as revealed by the total white blood cell count, bone marrow cellularity, endogenous spleen colony formation, levels of cellular antioxidants, and histopathologcal examination of gastrointestinal tract. Oral administration of SN-GLY, SN, and GLY 1 hour before a sublethal dose of radiation exposure reduced the radiation-induced depletion of cellular antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in various tissues of mice. Survival of animals following exposure to a lethal dose of gamma radiation was also improved. It was also found that the oral administration of the complex to tumor-bearing mice before 4 Gy gamma irradiation resulted in a faster tumor regression. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Simon A.S.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Vijayakumar T.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the entire world population. The conventional risk factors of CAD include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, family history, smoking etc. These factors contribute only 50 % of the total risk of CAD. For providing a complete risk assessment in CAD, it is mandatory to have well-planned clinical, biochemical and genetic studies in patients with CAD and subjects who are at risk of developing CAD. In this review an attempt is made to critically evaluate the conventional and emerging risk factors which predispose the individual to CAD. Specifically, the molecular basis of CAD including high oxidative stress, low antioxidant status and increased DNA damage are covered. A comprehensive and multifactorial approach to the problem is the better way to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease. © 2013 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.

Nair G.,Amala Cancer Research Center | Nair C.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science and Research Center
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Aim of Study: To explore sanazole (AK) directed targeting of the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin (DOX) complexed with silver nanoparticles (SNs) to tumor growth in a murine model. Materials and Methods: Sanazole (AK) and DOX were complexed with SNs, individually and in combination to obtain SN-AK, SN-DOX, and SN-AK-DOX. Solid tumors were developed on hind limbs of Swiss albino mice by transplanting Dalton's lymphoma ascitess (DLAs) tumor cells. Induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the DLA cells by AK and DOX complexed with SN, individually and in combination, were examined under in vitro conditions by incubating the cells with them. SN, AK, DOX, SN-AK, SN-DOX, AK-DOX, and SN-AK-DOX were administered orally to the tumor bearing mice and the therapeutic efficacy of AK-directed targeting of SN-DOX complexes to achieve tumor control was monitored. Results: Under in vitro conditions, SN, AK, DOX, SN-AK, SN-DOX, AK-DOX, and SN-AK-DOX induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in DLA cells to varying extents. The SN-AK-DOX complex showed higher level of cytotoxicity and apoptosis-induction in DLA cells. Similarly, administration of SN, AK, DOX, SN-AK, SN-DOX, AK-DOX, and SN-AK-DOX resulted in significant reduction in tumor volume and delay in tumor growth. The animals treated with SN-AK-DOX had the highest reduction in tumor volume and tumor growth. In fact, the tumor was almost absent in the animals of this group after the treatment. Conclusion: The SN complex of sanazole and doxorubicin together (SN-AK-DOX) has high anticancer activity under in vivo conditions and has great potential in tumor therapy.

Nair G.G.,Amala Cancer Research Center | Nair C.K.K.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science and Research Center
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Radioprotecting ability of the natural polyphenol, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of GA (100 mg/kg body weight), one hour prior to whole body gamma radiation exposure (2-8 Gy; 6 animals/group), reduced the radiation-induced cellular DNA damage in mouse peripheral blood leukocytes, bone marrow cells, and spleenocytes as revealed by comet assay. The GA administration also prevented the radiation-induced decrease in the levels of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidise (GPx), and nonprotein thiol glutathione (GSH) and inhibited the peroxidation of membrane lipids in these animals. Exposure of mice to whole body gamma radiation also caused the formation of micronuclei in blood reticulocytes and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, and the administration of GA resulted in the inhibition of micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations. In irradiated animals, administration of GA elicited an enhancement in the rate of DNA repair process and a significant increase in endogenous spleen colony formation. The administration of GA also prevented the radiation-induced weight loss and mortality in animals (10 animals/group) exposed to lethal dose (10 Gy) of gamma radiation. (For every experiment unirradiated animals without GA administration were taken as normal control; specific dose (Gy) irradiated animals without GA administration serve as radiation control; and unirradiated GA treated animals were taken as drug alone control). © 2013 Gopakumar Gopinathan Nair and Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair.

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