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Rajendran A.,Pusa Campus | Muthiah A.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Joel J.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Shanmugasundaram P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Turkish Journal of Biology | Year: 2014

An investigation was done to study the heterotic grouping and patterning in quality protein maize inbreds. Biochemical screening resulted in the choice of 3 inbreds each with high (UQPM 2, UQPM 4, and UQPM 21) and low (UQPM 18, UQPM 19, and UQPM 20) lysine and tryptophan contents respectively for genetic studies using diallel analysis. UQPM 20 × UQPM 18 was notable as it possessed high standard heterosis and specific combining (sca) effect for grain yield, protein, tryptophan, and lysine. Based on yield sca, the 6 parental inbreds were classified into 3 heterotic groups. Intergroup cross UQPM 20 × UQPM 18 was the best in yield and quality. The superior heterotic pattern was flint × dent. In genetic diversity analysis using simple sequence repeat markers, the inbreds of the best hybrid, UQPM 20 × UQPM 18, lay in same cluster but different subclusters. Correlations between genetic distance and sca effects were low for grain yield, which hampers the prediction of heterosis from molecular data alone. © TÜBİTAK. Source


Parimalan R.,Pusa Campus | Bhoge R.,Pusa Campus | Randhawa G.J.,Pusa Campus | Pandey C.D.,Pusa Campus
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Increased cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops concerns curators for unintentional introgression of transgenes with germplasm conserved in genebanks. Availability of transgenic counterparts in certain crop species necessitates screening of germplasm for adventitious presence of transgenes towards proper conservation under short- or long-term. Primers for CaMV 35S promoter region, NptII gene, and β-fructofuranosidase (endogenous reference gene) were designed using MPprimer1.4 software. Uniplex- or multiplex-PCR protocol had produced amplicons of 156, 557 and 287 bp length, respectively for CaMV 35S promoter, NptII gene and β-fructofuranosidase primers. Presence of 287 bp fragment for endogenous reference gene and absence of other two fragments for specific transgene elements in conserved germplasm indicated the absence of transgenes in germplasm being conserved in National Genebank. Presence of β-fructofuranosidase gene in most of the crop plants justifies its use for screening germplasm across species against transgene flow. It would be very much useful in screening germplasm towards conservation for which transgenic counterparts with CaMV 35S promoter and NptII gene are available at present. Multiplex-PCR protocol was validated for the risk of transgene flow using eggplant germplasms, which are being conserved since 2008 at our National Genebank. Implementing validated screening protocol for transgene detection as one of the major preparatory measures before conserving germplasm in genebanks will help curators in checking unintentional transgene flow. Source


Sanjeev P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chaudhary D.P.,Pusa Campus | Sreevastava P.,Pusa Campus | Saha S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2014

Increasing utilization of specialty maize prompted us to evaluate its fatty acid profile. For this purpose maize germplasm, classified as low oil normal maize (group 1), high oil normal maize (group 2), quality protein maize (QPM) (group 3) and sweet corn (group 4) was evaluated for oil, starch, protein and fatty acid composition mainly palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid. High oil content was observed in sweet corn samples which might be result of shriveled grain texture because of an increased embryo to kernel ratio. Individual fatty acids showed wide differences among different groups. A slightly higher amount of palmitic acid was reported in specialty maize as compared to normal maize. In contrast, stearic acid content was significantly low in high oil normal maize (56 %), QPM (36.2 %) and sweet corn (28.4 %) in comparison to low oil normal maize. Although no significant differences were observed for oleic acid between low oil normal and high oil normal maize, but sweet corn samples showed significantly reduced oleic acid compared to low oil normal maize. However, the most important observation was the higher content of linoleic acid in specialty maize (groups 2, 3 and 4) as compared to low oil normal maize. Further, the ratio of MUFA/PUFA was also discussed. It was concluded that specialty maize possesses a better oil quality in comparison to low oil normal maize. © 2014 AOCS. Source


Kumar G.,Pusa Campus | Kadam G.B.,Pusa Campus | Saha T.N.,Pusa Campus | Girish K.S.,Pusa Campus | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2014

Malva sylvestris is a perennial herbaceous plant with hermaphrodite flowers. Its floral morphology revealed that under Delhi conditions its period of flowering ranges from 1st week of March to end of April end under Delhi conditions. It possesses 20-35 branches with 50-75 flowers per branch emerging from leaf axils on each node. Natural pollen transfer in the species is efficient and fruit set following open-pollination is quite high. Stigma is overlapped by stamens and anthers. At receptivity style protrudes out and forms umbrella-like structure over anthers. At anthesis, pollen viability was recorded highest (95.71%) but started declining as day progressed. The curvature of style branches in M. sylvestris eventually brings some un-pollinated stigmas down to touch unshed pollen, potentially resulting in delayed selfing. Due to this mechanism extended selfing in a flower was found to coexist in nature with cross-pollination. Selfing was also promoted by geitonogamous mode and delayed selfing occurred when pollinators are scarce. Seed setting were also affected by the breeding system and maximum seed set was observed when the flowers were emasculated and hand pollinated. © 2014, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved. Source

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