Toulouse, France

Purpan Engineering School
Toulouse, France
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Willocquet L.,Purpan Engineering School | Savary S.,Purpan Engineering School | Yuen J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Advances in biotechnology have rendered tracking of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) a much easier task, making phenotyping, and not genotyping, the main bottleneck to integrating quantitative host plant resistance into breeding programs. The relevance of phenotyping methods is conditioned by their ability to predict the performance of a genotype at the field scale. Components of resistance represent the keystone hierarchy level between resistance expression in the field (the breeder's scale) and QTLs (the geneticist's scale). We describe approaches for upscaling processes to identify components of resistance that best predict field resistance, and for decision making for selection in breeding programs. We further highlight avenues for future research considering specific processes: disease transmission, defoliation, disease escape, polyetic processes, and interactions between components of resistance. Progress in breeding of the next generation of disease-resistant crop varieties depends on advances in phenotyping methods.High-throughput genotyping can now be routinely conducted in plant science.Phenotyping is lagging behind, especially for quantitative traits that drive crop performance, such as partial host plant resistance.Focusing on traits which are expressed half-way between the gene-code and the field reality, such as components of resistance, may allow the phenotyping bottleneck to be tackled.Bayesian-derived approaches allow translating research outcomes into operational tools for decision making in disease management. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Brin A.,Purpan Engineering School | Bouget C.,IRSTEA | Brustel H.,Purpan Engineering School | Jactel H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jactel H.,University of Bordeaux 1
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2011

Deadwood is widely recognized to be an important issue for biodiversity conservation in forest ecosystems. Establishing guidelines for its management requires a better understanding of relationships between woody debris characteristics and associated species assemblages. Although deadwood diameter has been identified as an important factor predicting occurrence of many saproxylic species, the boundary between small and large diameter has not yet been precisely defined. In commercial forests, it is also of critical importance to know which diameter is large enough to host the beetle species associated with large logs in order to ensure cost-effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. We investigated the differences in saproxylic beetle assemblages among four different diameter classes of downed woody oak and maritime pine debris, in France. Beetles were sampled using in situ emergence traps. The diameter of deadwood pieces ranged from 1 to 40 cm. No patterns of nestedness associated with the gradient of diameter size were identified for either tree species. More indicator saproxylic species were observed in large logs and branches than in small logs. A clear distinction appeared in assemblage composition around the 5-cm diameter threshold whereas no similar pattern occurred around the 10 cm value, i. e. the classical threshold used in forestry to distinguish fine woody debris from coarse woody debris. For both tree species, the mean body length of beetles increased with the diameter of deadwood suggesting that the quantity of available resources per piece may constitute a limiting factor for large beetle species. This study confirms that not only large deadwood pieces are relevant for saproxylic biodiversity conservation but also the smallest pieces. Therefore, forest managers would be well advised to maintain a high diversity of deadwoods to maintain saproxylic biodiversity. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jacquin A.,Purpan Engineering School | Goulard M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems | Year: 2013

Fire is acknowledged to be a factor for explaining the disturbance of vegetation dynamics interacting with other environmental factors. In this study, the authors want to clarify the importance and the role of fire on the dynamics of savanna vegetation. The study area is the Marovoay watershed located on the north-west coast of Madagascar. In this site, burning herbaceous cover is the main practice in the extensive grazing system. They analyzed the relationship between two indicators, one related to vegetation activity changes and one about fire regime that results from a combination of fire frequency and seasonality. All indicators were measured between 2000 and 2007 using a time series of MODIS images. In this work, the authors implemented two approaches of spatial analysis. The first one analyzes the spatial structure of the residuals of a per-pixel non-spatial GLM model. In the second approach, a spatial GLM model is directly computed. In both approaches, the authors proposed two levels of stratification for the study area according to the spatial variations of the relationship established between vegetation activity changes and fire regime. The use of spatial statistical tools produced parsimonious models which they found to be consistent with expert knowledge. The authors demonstrated that a statistical analysis based on spatial GLM is able either to stratify an area when non ancillary data on land use exist or to validate an existing stratification. © 2013, IGI Global.

Bouget C.,IRSTEA | Larrieu L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Larrieu L.,Center Regional Of La Propriete Forestiere Of Midi Pyrenees | Brin A.,Purpan Engineering School
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Managing and monitoring forest biodiversity is challenging and rapid habitat assessment protocols should be developed to provide us with general key features based on field data. A rapid habitat assessment protocol was implemented over a wide forest gradient in France to analyze surrogacy patterns and performance consistency of presumed key attributes for saproxylic beetle diversity (large trees, microhabitat-bearing trees with trunk cavities, fruiting bodies of saproxylic fungi, tree crown deadwood and sap runs, large logs and snags) and of stand openness. Data compiled in this study include standardized deadwood and window-flight trapped beetle data from 313 plots in oak, lowland and highland beech, lowland pine, highland spruce-fir and mixed temperate forests throughout France. The most structuring factors for species richness and composition of saproxylic beetles were the density of cavity- or fungus-bearing trees and of snags, as well as the degree of openness in the 1-ha surrounding the stand. These key habitat features were nevertheless inconsistent over the different types of temperate forests, and for rare species vs. all species combined. No one variable robustly explained variations in species richness in the deciduous or conifer forest types. The influence of deadwood and "habitat trees" was affected by meso- and micro-climatic features. A significant effect of stand openness on saproxylic beetles was observed both in deciduous and in conifer forests, but only in lowlands. Effects on species richness due to an interaction between substrate availability and openness were observed in montane forests only. Our results point toward the relevance of ecological attributes in tracking changes in saproxylic beetle biodiversity in specific forest contexts, but our study failed to identify any universal structural biodiversity indicators which could be surveyed in part with data from national forest inventories and used to track progress in sustainable forest management or in the protection of sensitive areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gossner M.M.,TU Munich | Lachat T.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Brunet J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Isacsson G.,Swedish Forest Agency | And 5 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2013

With the aim of wood production with negligible negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes, a silvicultural practice of selective logging with natural regeneration has been implemented in European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) during the last decades. Despite this near-to-nature strategy, species richness of various taxa is lower in these forests than in unmanaged forests. To develop guidelines to minimize the fundamental weaknesses in the current practice, we linked functional traits of saproxylic beetle species to ecosystem characteristics. We used continental-scale data from 8 European countries and regional-scale data from a large forest in southern Germany and forest-stand variables that represented a gradient of intensity of forest use to evaluate the effect of current near-to-nature management strategies on the functional diversity of saproxylic beetles. Forest-stand variables did not have a statistically significant effect on overall functional diversity, but they did significantly affect community mean and diversity of single functional traits. As the amount of dead wood increased the composition of assemblages shifted toward dominance of larger species and species preferring dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. The mean amount of dead wood across plots in which most species occurred was from 20 to 60 m3/ha. Species occurring in plots with mean dead wood >60 m3/ha were consistently those inhabiting dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. On the basis of our results, to make current wood-production practices in beech forests throughout Europe more conservation oriented (i.e., promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning), we recommend increasing the amount of dead wood to >20 m3/ha; not removing dead wood of large diameter (50 cm) and allowing more dead wood in advanced stages of decomposition to develop; and designating strict forest reserves, with their exceptionally high amounts of dead wood, that would serve as refuges for and sources of saproxylic habitat specialists. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

Ehrhart J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mingotaud A.-F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Violleau F.,Purpan Engineering School
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Poly(ethyleneoxide-b-e{open}-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) self-assemblies in water were characterized by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), with on-line coupling with quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), multi-angle light scattering (MALS), refractive index and UV/Vis detection. We report here the AsFlFFF analysis of three different nanoparticular self-assembled systems of PEO-PCL polymers in aqueous media, each polymer differing by the mass of the PEO and PCL fragments. Thus, self-assembled water samples of {PEO(2000)-b-PCL(2600)}, {PEO(5000)-b-PCL(1400)} and {PEO(5000)-b-PCL(4000)} were analyzed by AsFlFFF. In most cases, the size obtained by AsFlFFF was similar to the one characterized by DLS. However, in some instances, only AsFlFFF revealed the presence of several self-assemblies with very different sizes. These nanoparticles being used for the targeted delivery of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy, it was important to fully characterize the samples in terms of size and size distribution, molecular weight, Ip, aggregation number and also to assess whether the photosensitizer was inside the nanoparticles. AsFlFFF proved to be a very efficient technique which enabled this study without any destruction of the nanoparticles. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Blidi I.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry | Geagea R.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry | Coutelier O.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry | Mazieres S.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry | And 2 more authors.
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

RAFT/MADIX polymerisation of vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) was controlled in water with an O-ethyl xanthate transfer agent. This represents the first example of reversible deactivation radical polymerisation of a monomer bearing an unprotected phosphonic acid function. Hence, macromolecular engineering of polyphosphonates can now be envisioned by directly polymerising VPA in water. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Jacquin A.,Purpan Engineering School | Sheeren D.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Lacombe J.-P.,Purpan Engineering School | Lacombe J.-P.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2010

Like other African countries, Madagascar is concerned by vegetation cover degradation especially in savanna ecosystems. In this article, we describe an approach to quantify and localise savanna vegetation cover degradation. To this end, we analyse using STL decomposition method the trends measured between 2000 and 2007 of two phenological indicators which are derived from NDVI MODIS time series and characterizing vegetation activity during the growing season. Three types of trend were observed - null, positive or negative - over the study period with which we can associate a state of vegetation cover degradation. Future work will provide validation of this result. Next a comparison between the spatial variations of vegetation cover degradation and fire pressure for the same period should improve knowledge on the effect of fire on savanna vegetation activity. This information will be useful for local managers in order to implement savanna management strategies. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gouix N.,Conservatoire Regional des Espaces Naturels de Midi Pyrenees | Gouix N.,Purpan Engineering School | Brustel H.,Purpan Engineering School
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

The study of insects inhabiting basal hollow trees presents a methodological challenge inducing the fact that there is very little research done on fauna of this habitat. Many endangered saproxylic species only develop in cavities located at ground level. One of the most emblematic species of the kind is the Violet Click Beetle (Limoniscus violaceus), included in Annex II of the UE "Habitats" Directive. Surveys have been conducted in five Natura 2000 areas using a new method to monitor L. violaceus: the emergence traps. A total of 376 beetle species, including 239 saproxylics, have been identified. Five are considered threatened and are registered on the European Red List of saproxylic beetles and three are included in Annex II of the "Habitats" Directive. Among 191 trees studied, 33 revealed the presence of L. violaceus. Sampling efforts required to detect at least one specimen have been evaluated. Our results show that sampling a minimum of 20 hollow trees in April and May with emergence traps is recommended to obtain a meaningful survey on the presence of the Violet Click Beetle. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mico E.,University of Alicante | Garcia-Lopez A.,University of Alicante | Brustel H.,Purpan Engineering School | Padilla A.,University of Alicante | Galante E.,University of Alicante
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2013

Saproxylic beetle diversity is high at the Cabañeros National Park (central Spain), where woodland habitats exhibit remarkable heterogeneity. Our aim was to explain the diversity of saproxylic beetles, focusing on species turnover among mature woodland types. We surveyed five woodland types that represented the heterogeneity of the park's woodland habitats. Beetles were collected using window traps over a period of 20 months. The Jaccard Similarity Index was used as indirect value of beta diversity among woodlands and to test the relation between species turnover and geographical distance. We also identified the contribution of species turnover to landscape diversity by using a partitioning model. Moreover, the presence of mixed woodlands (more than one tree species) allowed us to attempt to valorise the effect of tree species (coupled with their historical management) on species turnover among woodlands. Finally, we looked for different saproxylic beetle preferences for habitat and tree species using an indicator value method. We found that saproxylic beetle species composition varied significantly among the studied woodlands. The variation in species turnover was independent from the distance among woodlands, which suggested that beetle dispersal abilities could not explain this high turnover. Tree species within woodlands were a key factor that increased diversity turnover in woodlands and, consequently, the diversity of the park. Moreover, we found saproxylic beetle species that had different habitat and tree species preferences. We conclude that woodland heterogeneity (highly affected by woodland composition) seems to be the driving force for saproxylic beetle diversity in this protected area. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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