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Pure Research, Sventitskij, Glushchenko and Tolparov | Date: 2011-03-23

The invention relates to the devices intended for atomization of liquids with the purpose of obtaining fine aerosol. The proposed device is intended for aerosolization of labile liquids, it includes 1 or several ejector atomizers arranged with possibility of their rotation with respect to a horizontal plane. The atomizer contains the chamber with the nozzle, in which the branch pipes for supplying of liquid material to be atomized and air are introduced, at that the air supply branch pipes are tangentially arranged in the chamber, and the sizes of the branch pipes openings and of the nozzle are related by the equation Do=(0,0,7)D^(2)c/Dk, wherein Do is the diameter of liquid supply branch pipe, Dc is the diameter of the outlet nozzle, Dk is the diameter of the air inlet channel, and the atomizers themselves are arranged in the cylindrical container above the liquid surface in such a way that the jet coming out therefrom is chordwisely oriented with respect to the walls of the cylindrical container, at that the projection of the central axis of the aerosol spray on the cylinder walls doesnt cross the top edge of the walls during at least one turn at motion of the aerosol particles. The results of the conducted tests showed, that the declared device allows to obtain stable fine aerosol of liquids with properties varying in the wide range.

Sokolova O.I.,Saint Petersburg State University | Demyanov A.V.,Pure Research | Bowers L.C.,Tulane National Primate Research Center | Didier E.S.,Tulane National Primate Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIVinfected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem was detected in one patient, and two patients were identified as being infected by Microsporidium species. One patient was infected with both E. intestinalis and E. cuniculi. In two patients, the microsporidian species were not identifiable. No statistically significant differences in gender, age, and stage of AIDS were observed between the microsporidian-positive and -negative HIV-infected patients. HIV-infected patients diagnosed with microsporidian infection, however, were significantly more likely to exhibit ≤100 CD4+ T cells/μl blood (20/30 patients [67%]; odds ratio [OR], 3.150; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.280 to 7.750; P = 0.0116) and weight loss of >10% of the baseline (19/30 patients [63%]; odds ratio, 2.995; CI95, 1.100 to 8.158; P = 0.0352) than HIV-infected patients not diagnosed with microsporidian infection. In summary, this is the first report describing the diagnosis of microsporidian infection of HIV-infected patients in Russia and the first detection of E. cuniculi strain II in a human. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Rokitskaya T.I.,Moscow State University | Kolodkin N.I.,Pure Research | Kotova E.A.,Moscow State University | Antonenko Y.N.,Moscow State University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2011

Indolicidin, a 13-residue cationic peptide with extremely high tryptophan content, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial as well as hemolytic activity. To gain insight into the mechanism of indolicidin action on membrane permeability, liposome leakage induced by this peptide was studied by using various probes with vesicles of different lipid compositions. In liposomes containing negatively charged lipids, indolicidin induced rather unselective permeabilization. By contrast, the peptide appeared to be selective in provoking leakage of neutral, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes: it effectively induced the release of negatively charged fluorescent dyes, carboxyfluorescein (CF), calcein and sulforhodamine B, but was unable to induce the leakage of a neutral compound, glucose, and that of positively charged doxorubicin. Moreover, organic anions, such as fatty acids, were found to suppress the indolicidin-induced CF leakage of egg PC liposomes. Based on these results, we concluded that indolicidin facilitates the dye release from uncharged lipid vesicles not by formation of membrane pores as it is generally accepted for the majority of antimicrobial peptides but rather via translocation of dye molecules across the membrane in the form of dye-peptide complexes, i.e. indolicidin operates as an organic anion carrier. This conclusion was supported by observing the formation of complexes between indolicidin and pyrenebutyrate in solution. The indolicidin analog having only one arginine was ineffective in pyrenebutyrate binding and CF transport. The mode of action proposed here for indolicidin can be related to that previously postulated for oligoarginine derivatives which are able to carry organic anions across liposomal and bulk phase membranes [Sakai N. & Matile S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125:14348-14356]. The newly identified mechanism of peptide ionophoric activity in uncharged lipid membranes may be involved in hemolytic action of indolicidin via induction of plasma membrane permeability for important anionic metabolites which disturbs regulation of osmotic balance ultimately leading to erythrocyte membrane rupture. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barrett M.P.,University of Glasgow | Gemmell C.G.,University of Strathclyde | Suckling C.J.,Pure Research
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Minor groove binders are small molecules that form strong complexes with the minor groove of DNA. There are several structural types of which distamycin and netropsin analogues, oligoamides built from heterocyclic and aromatic amino acids, and bis-amidines separated by aromatic and heterocyclic rings are of particular pharmaceutical interest. These molecules have helical topology that approximately matches the curvature of DNA in the minor groove. Depending upon the precise structure of the minor groove binder, selectivity can be obtained with respect to the DNA base sequence to which the compound binds. Minor groove binders have found substantial applications in anti-cancer therapy but their significance in anti-infective therapy has also been significant and is growing. For example, compounds of the bis-amidine class have been notable contributors to antiparasitic therapy for many years with examples such as berenil and pentamidine being well-known. A recent growth area has been inreased sophistication in the oligoamide class. High sequence selectivity is now possible and compounds with distinct antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic activity have all been identified. Importantly, the structures of the most active compounds attacking the various infective organisms differ significantly but not necessarily predictively. This poses interesting questions of mechanism of action with many different targets involved in DNA processing being candidates. Access of compounds to specific cell types also plays a role and in some cases, can be decisive. Prospects for a range of selective therapeutic agents from this class of compounds are higher now than for some considerable time. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lepsis J.,Pure Research | Drudze I.,Pure Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

We conducted a study to evaluate pear rootstocks in Latvian conditions with the local pear cultivar 'Suvenirs'. In the trial five vegetatively propagated rootstocks were included: three quince (Cydonia oblonga) rootstocks - QA, QC and BA 29; two rootstocks originated from Pyrus communis - OH×F333 and Pyrodwarf, as well as two seedling rootstocks of Pyrus communis - Kirchensaller Mostbirne and Kazraushu. An interstock of the cultivar 'Shtaras 31', (of Lithuania selection) was used to prevent physiological incompatibility with the quince rootstock. The trial was established in 2001 in the as a part of the project "Baltic Fruit Rootstock Studies". In the 7 th year after planting, the smallest TCA values were for trees grafted on quinces (QA, QC, BA29), but the largest ones were for trees on Kirchensaller Mostbirne and Kazraushu, rootstocks. OH×F333 and Pyrodwarf had intermediate values. Similar classification was observed also for the crown parameters. Physiological incompatibility was observed on rootstock BA29. The highest root suckers were observed for rootstock Pyrodwarf and Kirchensaller Mostbirne. Due to unfavourable weather conditions (low winter temperatures and spring frosts), yield was obtained only in the 6 th year after planting. Yield was quite low, 5-12 kg tree -1 or 4-7 t ha -1. Differences among rootstocks are not significant. 'Shtaras 31' is a compatible interstock for QA.

Lo C.Y.,Pure Research
Physics Essays | Year: 2011

The free falling of a neutral capacitor, though more massive after charged, would be slower. Thus, the claim of Galileo that neutral objects of different masses would fall with the same speed at vacuum is not always true. Nevertheless, the equivalence between gravitational and inertial masses would still be valid. Moreover, Einstein's equivalence principle, which has been misrepresented with distortion to become invalid by the Wheeler School, actually is generally valid, although the charge-mass repulsive force unequivocally shows that acceleration is intrinsically not generally just related to attractive gravity. To verify the equivalence of masses, new experiments should be conducted when the charge-mass interaction is present. To this end, first the experimental confirmation of the details, such as the distance dependence, of such a repulsive force between charge and mass is needed; and this is also a crucial test for general relativity. © 2011 Physics Essays Publication.

Lo C.Y.,Pure Research
Physics Essays | Year: 2011

A gravitational wave, as Hogarth (Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1953) pointed out in 1953, necessarily implies a nonzero energy-stress tensor at vacuum. Thus for the dynamic case, the Einstein equation violates the principle of causality and cannot have a dynamic solution. Nobel Laureates and Field Medalists failed to see this and thus overlooked that, for the dynamic case, the linearization to obtain an approximation is invalid in mathematics. To support the errors of the 1993 Nobel Committee, t Hooft claimed that his "cylindrical symmetric wave" would challenge this nonexistence of dynamic solutions. This paper shows, however, that the more general metric form of the Einstein-Rosen type violates the principle of causality. Thus, his solution is invalid in physics. Moreover, there are two errors in his construction, namely, (1) the plane-wave has been extended beyond its physical validity as an idealization and (2) the integration over the angle is not a wave packet and cannot be justified with any physical process. His invalid interpretation of the principle of causality is due to a failure in distinguishing the differences between mathematics and physics. According to Einstein, just as many others, t Hooft also misinterpreted Einstein's equivalence principle. © 2011 Physics Essays Publication.

It is pointed out that all the gauge theories in physics actually are not gauge invariant. Calculation of the deflection angle to the second order shows that general relativity is also not gauge invariant since the shortest distance from the Sun center is different for each gauge. Further, different "de Sitter" precession formulas of the first order are obtained for different gauges. Thus, Einstein's covariance principle is intrinsically invalid. This invalidity would imply also that Einstein's theory of measurement is invalid, since his covariance principle is the remedy for his theory of measurement. Nevertheless, since the Maxwell-Newton approximation has been proven as the first order of a physical metric, the second order approximation of deflection angle can be obtained from measuring the shortest distance from the Sun center. Concurrently, it is shown that the so-called "genuinely measurable quantities," which could be used to make gauge invariant measurements, actually do not exist. As shown in the 1993 press release of the Nobel Committee, many still do not understand Einstein's equivalence principle. Validity of the harmonic metric to the first order and validity of Einstein's equivalence principle can be directly tested by measuring the local light speeds. © 2010 Physics Essays Publication.

Lo C.Y.,Pure Research
Physics Essays | Year: 2010

An overdue critical analysis of Einstein's general relativity is provided. For the dynamic case, the Einstein equation is invalid since it is impossible to have a physical solution. For the static case, Einstein's covariance principle has been proven invalid. This error comes from Einstein's theory of measurement which adapts the notion of distance in Riemannian geometry as if it were valid in physics. It is shown that such a theory was not used in Einstein's predictions and its supporting arguments are actually based on invalid applications of special relativity. Nevertheless, Einstein's equivalence principle plays a crucial role in rectifying the shortcomings of his theory of measurement. Moreover, the Maxwell-Newton approximation for massive sources is proven to be independently valid for the dynamic cases. Then, to explain the binary pulsar experiments, the Einstein equation needs to be modified with an additional source of the gravitational stress-energy tensor with a different coupling sign. After E=m c2 is shown to be only conditionally valid, the charge-mass interaction is discovered, and its existence is experimentally verified. Thus, the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism is necessary. This new force explains the characteristics of NASA's Pioneer anomaly. Moreover, since a photon must include gravitational energy, particle physics cannot be fully understood without taking gravity into consideration. © 2010 Physics Essays Publication.

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