West Lafayette, IN, United States
West Lafayette, IN, United States

Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana, is the flagship university of the six-campus Purdue University system. Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and money from Lafayette businessman John Purdue to establish a college of science, technology, and agriculture in his name. The first classes were held on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students.The university was founded with the gift of $150,000 from John Purdue, a Lafayette business leader and philanthropist, along with $50,000 from Tippecanoe County, and 100 acres of land from Lafayette residents in support of the project. In 1869, it was decided that the new school would be built near the city of Lafayette and established as Purdue University, in the name of the institution’s principal benefactor.The West Lafayette campus offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 70 master’s and doctoral programs, and professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has 18 intercollegiate sports teams and more than 900 student organizations. Today, Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Purdue enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana as well as the fourth largest international student population of any university in the United States. Wikipedia.


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Yazyev O.V.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Chen Y.P.,Purdue University
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphitic carbon, has attracted intense attention because of its extraordinary properties that make it a suitable material for a wide range of technological applications. Large-area graphene films, which are necessary for industrial applications, are typically polycrystalline-that is, composed of single-crystalline grains of varying orientation joined by grain boundaries. Here, we present a review of the large body of research reported in the past few years on polycrystalline graphene. We discuss its growth and formation, the microscopic structure of grain boundaries and their relations to other types of topological defect such as dislocations. The Review further covers electronic transport, optical and mechanical properties pertaining to the characterizations of grain boundaries, and applications of polycrystalline graphene. We also discuss research, still in its infancy, performed on other two-dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, and offer perspectives for future directions of research. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Rossmann M.G.,Purdue University
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics | Year: 2013

This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction. Starting in the 1990s, these enveloped viruses were studied by combining cryo-electron microscopy of the whole virus with X-ray crystallography of their protein components. These structures gave information on virus assembly, virus neutralization by antibodies, and virus fusion with and entry into the host cell. The same techniques were also employed in the study of complex bacteriophages that were too large to crystallize. Nevertheless, there still remained many pleomorphic, highly pathogenic viruses that lacked the icosahedral symmetry and homogeneity that had made the earlier structural investigations possible. Currently some of these viruses are starting to be studied by combining X-ray crystallography with cryo-electron tomography. © Cambridge University Press 2013.


Mengiste T.,Purdue University
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Plants inhabit environments crowded with infectious microbes that pose constant threats to their survival. Necrotrophic pathogens are notorious for their aggressive and wide-ranging virulence strategies that promote host cell death and acquire nutrients for growth and reproduction from dead cells. This lifestyle constitutes the axis of their pathogenesis and virulence strategies and marks contrasting immune responses to biotrophic pathogens. The diversity of virulence strategies in necrotrophic species corresponds to multifaceted host immune response mechanisms. When effective, the plant immune system disarms the infectious necrotroph of its pathogenic arsenal or attenuates its effect, restricting further ingress and disease symptom development. Simply inherited resistance traits confer protection against host-specific necrotrophs (HSNs), whereas resistance to broad host-range necrotrophs (BHNs) is complex. Components of host genetic networks, as well as the molecular and cellular processes that mediate host immune responses to necrotrophs, are being identified. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of plant immune responses to necrotrophs and comparison with responses to biotrophic pathogens are summarized, highlighting common and contrasting mechanisms. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Swithers S.E.,Purdue University
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Negishi E.-I.,Purdue University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Tools for chemists: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 was awarded for research on palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling in organic synthesis. Two of the Laureates, A. Suzuki and E. Negishi, report here first hand on the historical development and the current status of this research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Park K.,Purdue University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Controlled drug delivery technology has progressed over the last six decades. This progression began in 1952 with the introduction of the first sustained release formulation. The 1st generation of drug delivery (1950-1980) focused on developing oral and transdermal sustained release systems and establishing controlled drug release mechanisms. The 2nd generation (1980-2010) was dedicated to the development of zero-order release systems, self-regulated drug delivery systems, long-term depot formulations, and nanotechnology-based delivery systems. The latter part of the 2nd generation was largely focused on studying nanoparticle formulations. The Journal of Controlled Release (JCR) has played a pivotal role in the 2nd generation of drug delivery technologies, and it will continue playing a leading role in the next generation. The best path towards a productive 3rd generation of drug delivery technology requires an honest, open dialog without any preconceived ideas of the past. The drug delivery field needs to take a bold approach to designing future drug delivery formulations primarily based on today's necessities, to produce the necessary innovations. The JCR provides a forum for sharing the new ideas that will shape the 3rd generation of drug delivery technology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Park K.,Purdue University
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient truths. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Narimanov E.E.,Purdue University
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

We introduce a new 'universality class' of artificial optical media-photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CRISP - Critical Resilient Int | Award Amount: 2.20M | Year: 2017

Understanding the recovery of communities after disruptions has important implications for efficiently allocating resources, better planning for disasters, and reducing time and cost of recovery. Virtually all communities are embedded in highly interdependent social and physical infrastructure. This coupling between social and physical networks can lead to complex cascading effects that cannot be understood by looking at these networks in isolation. The full implications of these interdependencies for the resilience of communities and their ability to recover after disasters are not currently understood. This research seeks an understanding of the underlying factors that lead to resilience and recovery of interdependent social and physical networks after disasters. The researchers will collect data from communities impacted by Hurricane Sandy to create and test modeling approaches for improved knowledge of both social and physical factors that lead to recovery. It will also lead to a better understanding of the interdependencies between the social and physical systems, and will identify potential tipping points where small changes in the social and physical systems significantly impact the recovery of the overall system. The findings from the study will allow governmental and emergency agencies to take actions that will accelerate system recovery and enhance its resilience. Students and underrepresented groups working on this project will gain exposure and experience working with a multi-disciplinary research team, thereby preparing them for tackling complex, systems-related challenges in their future careers. A workshop will be organized to disseminate the findings to the scientific community and various stakeholders who are involved in recovery processes.

The modeling of resilience in interdependent social and physical networks will be conducted using an interdisciplinary approach. First, the researchers will collect data pertaining to complex interdependencies that influence post-disaster recovery and decision-making. Second, the project will leverage insights gleaned from the data to identify utility functions that influence the decision-making of households, and formulate mathematical techniques based on game theory and network science for modeling and analyzing the tipping points that lead to recovery across social and physical networks. Third, the research effort will create novel state-estimation techniques using publicly available citizen data and develop multi-agent simulation models that will provide new decision-support tools for governmental agencies and emergency response organizations to model, test and predict the effects of recovery actions. The research will identify the role of network structure and function in the movement of the overall system towards better recovery states, and characterize the different events that transpire during community re-entry and recovery processes.


Manfra M.J.,Purdue University
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2014

Among very-low-disorder systems of condensed matter, the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined in aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)-gallium arsenide (GaAs) heterostructures holds a privileged position as a platform for the discovery of new electronic states driven by strong Coulomb interactions. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), thin-film deposition technique, produces the highest quality 2DEGs and has played a central role in a number of discoveries that have at their root the interplay of reduced dimensionality, strong electron-electron interactions, and disorder. This review attempts to describe the latest developments in heterostructure design, MBE technology, and the evolution of our understanding of disorder that result in improved material quality and facilitate discovery of new phenomena at ever finer energy scales. © Copyright 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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