West Lafayette, IN, United States
West Lafayette, IN, United States

Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana, is the flagship university of the six-campus Purdue University system. Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and money from Lafayette businessman John Purdue to establish a college of science, technology, and agriculture in his name. The first classes were held on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students.The university was founded with the gift of $150,000 from John Purdue, a Lafayette business leader and philanthropist, along with $50,000 from Tippecanoe County, and 100 acres of land from Lafayette residents in support of the project. In 1869, it was decided that the new school would be built near the city of Lafayette and established as Purdue University, in the name of the institution’s principal benefactor.The West Lafayette campus offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 70 master’s and doctoral programs, and professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has 18 intercollegiate sports teams and more than 900 student organizations. Today, Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Purdue enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana as well as the fourth largest international student population of any university in the United States. Wikipedia.

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Qiu Y.,Purdue University | Park K.,Purdue University
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2012

Environmentally sensitive hydrogels have enormous potential in various applications. Some environmental variables, such as low pH and elevated temperatures, are found in the body. For this reason, either pH-sensitive and/or temperature-sensitive hydrogels can be used for site-specific controlled drug delivery. Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors as well as drug delivery systems. Light-sensitive, pressure-responsive and electro-sensitive hydrogels also have the potential to be used in drug delivery and bioseparation. While the concepts of these environment-sensitive hydrogels are sound, the practical applications require significant improvements in the hydrogel properties. The most significant weakness of all these external stimuli-sensitive hydrogels is that their response time is too slow. Thus, fast-acting hydrogels are necessary, and the easiest way of achieving that goal is to make thinner and smaller hydrogels. This usually makes the hydrogel systems too fragile and they do not have mechanical strength necessary in many applications. Environmentally sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery applications also require biocompatibility. Synthesis of new polymers and crosslinkers with more biocompatibility and better biodegradability would be essential for successful applications. Development of environmentally sensitive hydrogels with such properties is a formidable challenge. If the achievements of the past can be extrapolated into the future, however, it is highly likely that responsive hydrogels with a wide array of desirable properties can be made. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Geahlen R.L.,Purdue University
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014

Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase well known for its ability to couple immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cellular responses to extracellular antigens and antigen-immunoglobulin (Ig) complexes of particular importance to the initiation of inflammatory responses. Thus, Syk is an attractive target for therapeutic kinase inhibitors designed to ameliorate the symptoms and consequences of acute and chronic inflammation. Its more recently recognized role as a promoter of cell survival in numerous cancer cell types ranging from leukemia to retinoblastoma has attracted considerable interest as a target for a new generation of anticancer drugs. This review discusses the biological processes in which Syk participates that have made this kinase such a compelling drug target. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Witt J.K.,Purdue University
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance | Year: 2011

Targets presented just beyond arm's reach look closer when observers intend to touch them with a reach-extending tool rather than without the tool. This finding is one of several that suggest that a person's ability to act influences perceived distance to objects. However, some critics have argued that apparent action effects were actually due to effects on the judgments rather than on the perception. In other words, the target does not actually look closer, but participants report that it is. To help counter this argument, the current experiments used an indirect measure of perceived distance: Participants reported perceived shape or perceived parallelism. The results revealed that triangles looked shorter and lines looked more horizontal to participants who reached with a tool, and therefore could reach the targets, than they did to participants who reached without the tool. These results demonstrate convergence across multiple types of judgments, a finding that undermines alternative, judgment-based accounts and suggests that the ability to reach an object changes the perceived distance to the object. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Rossmann M.G.,Purdue University
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics | Year: 2013

This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction. Starting in the 1990s, these enveloped viruses were studied by combining cryo-electron microscopy of the whole virus with X-ray crystallography of their protein components. These structures gave information on virus assembly, virus neutralization by antibodies, and virus fusion with and entry into the host cell. The same techniques were also employed in the study of complex bacteriophages that were too large to crystallize. Nevertheless, there still remained many pleomorphic, highly pathogenic viruses that lacked the icosahedral symmetry and homogeneity that had made the earlier structural investigations possible. Currently some of these viruses are starting to be studied by combining X-ray crystallography with cryo-electron tomography. © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Mengiste T.,Purdue University
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Plants inhabit environments crowded with infectious microbes that pose constant threats to their survival. Necrotrophic pathogens are notorious for their aggressive and wide-ranging virulence strategies that promote host cell death and acquire nutrients for growth and reproduction from dead cells. This lifestyle constitutes the axis of their pathogenesis and virulence strategies and marks contrasting immune responses to biotrophic pathogens. The diversity of virulence strategies in necrotrophic species corresponds to multifaceted host immune response mechanisms. When effective, the plant immune system disarms the infectious necrotroph of its pathogenic arsenal or attenuates its effect, restricting further ingress and disease symptom development. Simply inherited resistance traits confer protection against host-specific necrotrophs (HSNs), whereas resistance to broad host-range necrotrophs (BHNs) is complex. Components of host genetic networks, as well as the molecular and cellular processes that mediate host immune responses to necrotrophs, are being identified. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of plant immune responses to necrotrophs and comparison with responses to biotrophic pathogens are summarized, highlighting common and contrasting mechanisms. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Swithers S.E.,Purdue University
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Negishi E.-I.,Purdue University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Tools for chemists: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 was awarded for research on palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling in organic synthesis. Two of the Laureates, A. Suzuki and E. Negishi, report here first hand on the historical development and the current status of this research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Park K.,Purdue University
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient truths. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Narimanov E.E.,Purdue University
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

We introduce a new 'universality class' of artificial optical media-photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

Manfra M.J.,Purdue University
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2014

Among very-low-disorder systems of condensed matter, the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined in aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)-gallium arsenide (GaAs) heterostructures holds a privileged position as a platform for the discovery of new electronic states driven by strong Coulomb interactions. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), thin-film deposition technique, produces the highest quality 2DEGs and has played a central role in a number of discoveries that have at their root the interplay of reduced dimensionality, strong electron-electron interactions, and disorder. This review attempts to describe the latest developments in heterostructure design, MBE technology, and the evolution of our understanding of disorder that result in improved material quality and facilitate discovery of new phenomena at ever finer energy scales. © Copyright 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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