West Lafayette, IN, United States
West Lafayette, IN, United States

Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana, is the flagship university of the six-campus Purdue University system. Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and money from Lafayette businessman John Purdue to establish a college of science, technology, and agriculture in his name. The first classes were held on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students.The university was founded with the gift of $150,000 from John Purdue, a Lafayette business leader and philanthropist, along with $50,000 from Tippecanoe County, and 100 acres of land from Lafayette residents in support of the project. In 1869, it was decided that the new school would be built near the city of Lafayette and established as Purdue University, in the name of the institution’s principal benefactor.The West Lafayette campus offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 70 master’s and doctoral programs, and professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has 18 intercollegiate sports teams and more than 900 student organizations. Today, Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Purdue enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana as well as the fourth largest international student population of any university in the United States. Wikipedia.

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Mickelbart M.V.,Purdue University | Hasegawa P.M.,Purdue University | Bailey-Serres J.,University of California at Riverside | Bailey-Serres J.,University Utrecht
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2015

Crop yield reduction as a consequence of increasingly severe climatic events threatens global food security. Genetic loci that ensure productivity in challenging environments exist within the germplasm of crops, their wild relatives and species that are adapted to extreme environments. Selective breeding for the combination of beneficial loci in germplasm has improved yields in diverse environments throughout the history of agriculture. An effective new paradigm is the targeted identification of specific genetic determinants of stress adaptation that have evolved in nature and their precise introgression into elite varieties. These loci are often associated with distinct regulation or function, duplication and/or neofunctionalization of genes that maintain plant homeostasis. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2016

In the Phase-I project Avomeen LLC will advance the manufacturing technology that has already developed thermally stable separators in-house. In Phase I project, Avomeen will develop thermally stable separator and related low cost manufacturing process to achieve high energy/power density lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety. Currently micro-porous material and glass material are using as a separator to provide electrical isolation for the electrodes in lithium ion batteries. The proposed separators will be maximizing volumetric efficiency for electrolyte capacity. The proposed separators are chemically compatible with electrolyte and reaction products after activation. Electrolyte wettability, heat resistance and oxidation resistance will be improved by using coatings made of materials that exhibit high affinity with liquid electrolytes. This better wettability, heat resistance and oxidation resistance contributes to longer battery life, enhance the battery safety and allows higher voltages and higher energy/power densities. On a follow on Phase-II project this technology will be commercialized by a leading lithium ion battery manufacturer who is very much interested in this technology.

Forbush K.T.,Purdue University | Watson D.,University of Notre Dame
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2013

Background Co-morbidity patterns in epidemiological studies of mental illness consistently demonstrate that a latent internalizing factor accounts for co-morbidity patterns among unipolar mood and anxiety disorders, whereas a latent externalizing factor underlies the covariation of substance-use disorders and antisocial behaviors. However, this structure needs to be extended to include a broader range of disorders. Method Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the structure of co-morbidity using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (n = 16 233). Results In the best-fitting model, eating and bipolar disorders formed subfactors within internalizing, impulse control disorders were indicators of externalizing, and factor-analytically derived personality disorder scales split between internalizing and externalizing. Conclusions This was the first large-scale nationally representative study that has included uncommon mental disorders with sufficient power to examine their fit within a structural model of psychopathology. The results of this study have important implications for conceptualizing myriad mental disorders. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Helie S.,Purdue University | Ell S.W.,University of Maine, United States | Ashby F.G.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Cortex | Year: 2015

This article focuses on the interaction between the basal ganglia (BG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BG are a group of nuclei at the base of the forebrain that are highly connected with cortex. A century of research suggests that the role of the BG is not exclusively motor, and that the BG also play an important role in learning and memory. In this review article, we argue that one important role of the BG is to train connections between posterior cortical areas and frontal cortical regions that are responsible for automatic behavior after extensive training. According to this view, one effect of BG trial-and-error learning is to activate the correct frontal areas shortly after posterior associative cortex activation, thus allowing for Hebbian learning of robust, fast, and efficient cortico-cortical processing. This hypothesized process is general, and the content of the learned associations depends on the specific areas involved (e.g., associations involving premotor areas would be more closely related to behavior than associations involving the PFC). We review experiments aimed at pinpointing the function of the BG and the frontal cortex and show that these results are consistent with the view that the BG is a general purpose trainer for cortico-cortical connections. We conclude with a discussion of some implications of the integrative framework and how this can help better understand the role of the BG in many different tasks. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hu J.,CAS Institute of Physics | Hu J.,Purdue University
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Exquadrum, Inc. proposes to develop an innovative multi-mode power generation system for hypersonic flight vehicles. This system produces the required power output that the flight vehicle demands, independent of the flight characteristics at the time. However, this system will work in conjunction with the propulsion system to augment the power generation capabilities. This is accomplished through improvements in the power generations efficiency, allowing for greater endurance capabilities. Application of this technology will provide the desired power generation performance, longevity, and reusability desired for future hypersonic platforms.; BENEFIT: During the Phase I effort, Exquadrum will conduct trade studies, combined multi-objective optimization strategies, to maximize the multi-mode power generations capabilities. In Phase II, Exquadrum will fabricate and test a scaled design of the multi-mode system to validate the Phase I predicted performance across all expected operating conditions of the flight vehicles mission profile.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.93K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: The objective of the proposed research effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of 100 kHz to 1 MHz nonlinear spectroscopy for measurements of molecular energy distributions, energy transfer, major species, and temperature in transient combusting and nonequilibrium flows. This will be accomplished, in part, by extending burst-mode laser technology to the fs and ps regimes for greater than three-orders of magnitude improvement in available probe-pulse energy at MHz repetition rates. This laser architecture will also ensure precise synchronization of transform-limited fs and ps pulses for efficient coherent excitation of multi-photon transitions while minimizing interferences such as nonresonant background and collisions. During the Phase I, Spectral Energies and Purdue University will investigate the optimal laser architecture for fs/ps burst-mode laser spectroscopy and demonstrate potential spectroscopic and imaging systems using high-speed ps coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) as a test platform. The Phase II will result in a prototype MHz rate fs/ps CARS system and demonstration in Air Force relevant flows, such as for pulse detonation, scramjet, and gas-turbine combustion. This research program will result in commercial laser spectroscopy and imaging systems that will address critical research needs in areas such as advanced propulsion, munitions, space vehicles, and related industries.; BENEFIT: High-temperature, transient combustion and nonequilibrium conditions in novel propulsion engines, space vehicles, and munitions systems require expensive and time-consuming testing, typically at low data rates. Capturing the relevant timescales in these devices requires measurements at rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz to track the interaction of flames with hypersonic boundary layers, shockwaves, detonation waves, pulsed plasmas, and fluid dynamic instabilities. The high-speed measurement capabilities proposed in this work will be able to resolve these interactions in both time and space (in a line or a plane) to provide the understanding and predictive models needed to evaluate advanced technologies and meet performance targets of future weapons systems. The prototype instruments proposed in this research program will also fill a gap in commercially available laser technology, offering a greater than three orders of magnitude improvement in probe-pulse energies and repetition rates for a wide range of applications in the aerospace, defense, energy, and manufacturing industries. 1. Immediate benefits to Air Force test facilities and OEMs: The proposed research program will deliver a prototype burst-mode fs and ps laser source and imaging system that is currently not available at Air Force test facilities and OEMs). This will enable investigations of nonequilibrium molecular energy distributions, temperatures, and major species concentrations in test cells for high-speed propulsion systems of interest to the Air Force, including pulse detonation, scramjet, rocket, and gas turbine engines. In high-enthalpy impulse facilities, which have run times on the order of a millisecond, the ability to acquire data at 100 kHz to MHz rates will significantly increase productivity and provide the data bandwidth needed to track the space-time evolution of transient phenomena. This will be invaluable for validating predictive models of molecular energy distributions and improving simulations of hypersonic shocks, boundary layers, detonations, and plasmas. 2. Scientific discovery: Nonlinear spectroscopic techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), are often used for the spectroscopic study of rotational and vibrational nonequilibrium flows and plasmas. However, the effects of nonresonant background and collisions limit accuracy and degrade sensitivity, especially at high pressure. Moreover, low data-acquisition speeds (~10-50 Hz) prevent temporal resolution for highly transient processes. The proposed instrumentation would increase both the probe-pulse energy and repetition rate to allow studies of highly transient processes, such as hypersonic boundary layers, detonation waves, and pulsed plasmas used for combustion enhancement. By extending burst-mode laser technology to the fs and ps regimes, it will also be possible to temporally suppress the effects of nonresonant background and collisions and to identify dominant energy transfer processes controlling vibrational level populations and energy thermalization, measure rotational/vibrational temperature and major-species concentrations, and measure of vibrational-rotational energy transfer rates. This will enable detailed development and validation of accurate numerical models used to predict these phenomena in transient combusting and nonequilibrium flows. 3. Economic security and prosperity: The introduction of low-data-rate amplified fs and ps laser systems enabled a major advance in spectroscopic capability, with these lasers now being standard instruments in chemistry, physics, biomedical, and engineering laboratories throughout the world. The pulse energies of these systems have increased by nearly an order of magnitude within the last decade but are ultimately limited by practical considerations such as the laser footprint and average power. By extending burst-mode laser technology to the fs and ps regimes, the proposed work will enable significantly higher pulse energies in a compact package and with relatively low average power. Such a system has significant commercial potential in a wide range of laboratories focusing on aerospace, defense, energy, and manufacturing, and these industries in turn have an enormous impact on national economic security and prosperity. Spectral Energies is well positioned to be able to commercialize the proposed prototype instrumentation because of past and current investments in burst-mode laser technology, instrumentation for nonlinear spectroscopy, and laser manufacturing capabilities.

Rokhinson L.P.,Purdue University | Liu X.,University of Notre Dame | Furdyna J.K.,University of Notre Dame
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

Topological superconductors that support Majorana fermions have been predicted when one-dimensional semiconducting wires are coupled to a superconductor. Such excitations are expected to exhibit non-Abelian statistics and can be used to realize quantum gates that are topologically protected from local sources of decoherence. Here we report the observation of the fractional a.c. Josephson effect in a hybrid semiconductor-superconductor InSb/Nb nanowire junction, a hallmark of topological matter. When the junction is irradiated with a radiofrequency f 0 in the absence of an external magnetic field, quantized voltage steps (Shapiro steps) with a height ΔV =hf 0/2e are observed, as is expected for conventional superconductor junctions, where the supercurrent is carried by charge-2e Cooper pairs. At high magnetic fields the height of the first Shapiro step is doubled to hf 0/e, suggesting that the supercurrent is carried by charge-e quasiparticles. This is a unique signature of the Majorana fermions, predicted almost 80 years ago. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.98K | Year: 2016

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration Purdue University, proposes to develop a novel launch propulsion technology for rapid insertion of nano/micro satellites (~ 5-50 kg scale) into low earth orbit, with the potential to lower the current state-of-the-art launch stage cost by a factor of two. The technology employs a propulsion scheme comprising a storable liquid oxidizer and a unique solid fuel with excellent mechanical and thermochemical properties. The propulsion scheme was initially developed by PSI under DARPA programs for applications to in-space thrusters integrated in a consumable-structure spacecraft. The proposed application of this scheme to launch vehicle stage technology will result in low-cost, mass-efficient launch systems and will reduce the technical development risk for NASA. The fuel used is commercially available as an inexpensive engineering material. The oxidizer is commercially available as a low-cost, industrial chemical. Both have high density, are green (halogen and nitrogen free), and their chemical reaction has a high specific impulse. The oxidizer storage, handling, transportation, and loading operations are simpler and safer compared to cryogenic or toxic propellants. These attributes of the fuel and oxidizer enable our proposed concept of a low-cost launch vehicle stage. The specific objective of Phase I is to develop and analyze low-cost launch stage and thruster design concepts, and to develop and build a scaled prototype thruster hardware that will be used in both Phases I and II to characterize thruster design and to obtain performance data for use in the launch stage and propulsion system design/analysis studies. At the end of Phase I, we will have demonstrated the operation of the subscale thruster system and measured its performance. A plan for Phase II work, involving approaches to subscale ground testing or sub-orbital flight testing, will also be developed.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.93K | Year: 2012

Under this effort, Sentient will develop mixed-EHL models to predict the performance of fluid film bearings for submarine applications. The models will consider critical design and operational parameters such as component geometry and surface finish, start up and shut down speeds/loads, and lubrication properties to predict torque, film thickness, and associated wear/efficiency. The result will be a scalable design and analysis tool to be used in the evaluation of full scale fluid film bearing components.

Jackson S.,Purdue University | Chen Z.J.,Cellular One
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) occurs throughout the evolutionary history of many plants and some animals, including crops such as wheat, cotton, and sugarcane. Recent studies have documented rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression in plant polyploids, which reflects genomic and functional plasticity of duplicate genes and genomes in plants. Common features of uniparental gene regulation and nonadditive gene expression in regulatory pathways responsive to growth, development, and stresses in many polyploids have led to the conclusion that epigenetic mechanisms including chromatin modifications and small RNAs play central roles in shaping molecular and phenotypic novelty that may be selected and domesticated in many polyploid plants and crops. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.93K | Year: 2016

With Project AEQUOR-V Aurora, in partnership with Purdue University, proposes to complete the conceptual design of a hybrid unmanned air/underwater vehicle (HUA/UV) capable of transitioning repeatedly between aerial and underwater operations in a single mission, operating in water depths up to 40 ft, and carrying a significant payload. To accomplish this goal, Aurora will build on design experience and flight test data in place from its previous two HUA/UV vehicle development projects. Aurora sees the transitional stages from water-to-air and air-to-water as the key high-risk design points for this vehicle configuration, especially the water-to-air transition. A novel propulsion architecture is proposed which combines an electric motor for aerial and underwater cruise with a secondary thruster to perform the water-to-air breaching maneuver. The propulsion lab at Purdue University will analyze several different vehicle propulsion systems to determine which gives the most effective system-level performance, while Aurora will investigate air-to-water transitqion methods and other options in the vehicle trade space. The vehicle design will be neutrally buoyant, with common surfaces used for control both in the air and in the water. The outcome of this Phase 1 study will be a flight demonstrator conceptual design, mission CONOPs, and test plan.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 742.40K | Year: 2011

The US Navy requires advanced power systems for emerging autonomous underwater vehicle platforms, and hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells have been identified as a suitable replacement for the costly and hazardous primary lithium batteries currently in use. Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) and Purdue have teamed to demonstrate a novel chemical hydride fueling solution that will enable onboard hydrogen generation at high energy density. The Phase II program will further develop pellet geometry and coating technology, and foam-based hydrogen generation catalysts for use in a fixed-bed reactor. The project will culminate in a fully engineered hydrogen generation system prototype producing 25 SLPM hydrogen, suitable for a 2.5-kWe H2/O2 fuel cell. In the option periods, GES and Purdue will perform extended evaluation and chemical process modeling of the prototype, and also develop and integrate a dead-ended fuel cell with the system.

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