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Flusberg S.J.,Purchase College, State University of New York | Matlock T.,University of California at Merced | Thibodeau P.H.,Oberlin College
Environmental Communication | Year: 2017

Despite overwhelming scientific consensus, millions of Americans fail to view climate change as a pressing threat. How can we address this disconnect between science and public opinion? In the present study, we investigated the role of metaphorical framing in shaping attitudes toward climate change. Participants read a brief article that metaphorically described US efforts to reduce carbon emissions as a war or race against climate change, or non-metaphorically described it as the issue of climate change. We further manipulated whether these emission-reduction goals emphasized the relatively near or distant future. We found that, compared to the race frame, the war metaphor made people perceive more urgency and risk surrounding climate change and express a greater willingness to increase conservation behavior, irrespective of the time horizon. Those who read the non-metaphorical report tended to respond in between these two extremes. We discuss the implications of these findings for climate communications. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

LOS ANGELES--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Ravi S. Rajan, the Dean of the School of the Arts at Purchase College, State University of New York, has been selected as the fourth President of the California Institute of the Arts, the school’s Board of Trustees announced Tuesday. Rajan will begin his tenure June 1, 2017, and his selection was officially announced to the CalArts community late Tuesday following a unanimous board vote. “CalArts is a beacon in the higher ed and arts community that has left an indelible mark on the artists who are forging the future monuments of culture and society,” said Rajan. “I’ve known and experienced the amazing work of CalArts’s faculty and alumni for decades, and have marveled at the innovation and transformation that has occurred under President Lavine’s leadership. I’m humbled by this opportunity, excited to be a part of this great community, and look forward to building upon the innovative pedigree of CalArts.” Tim Disney, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, said that Rajan has proven himself to be an innovative and thoughtful leader whose passion and vision for arts education aligns with the CalArts community. “Ravi showed the fiery passion for the arts that was at the core of CalArts’ founding,” said Disney. “His commitment to excellence and exploration and innovation will help continue CalArts’ rich legacy and unbounded future.” As Dean of the School of Arts at Purchase College since 2012, Rajan has charted an inventive, collective and ambitious educational path that mirrors the historical sensibilities of CalArts. His distinguished background in both the arts and higher education make him a uniquely qualified leader, allowing him to tackle challenges and pursue innovative ideas, while always preserving qualities that are essential to the institution’s artistic identity. Rajan started a 3-phase $100 million capital renovation of the art and design facilities at Purchase College, the first such renovation in the program’s history. His boundless advocacy helped strengthen a culture of philanthropy, resulting in the College securing the largest individual donations since its founding. In an effort to grow positive change within the arts and culture globally, Rajan spearheaded the creation of a new MA in Entrepreneurship in the Arts, the first graduate degree of its kind in the world. Rajan has extensive experience in the production of art, music, theatre/dance, and film/video, as well as in senior executive roles in higher education. He became an Assistant Dean of Art+Design at Purchase College in 2005, eventually rising to his current position of Dean of the School of Arts in 2012. He is a member of the Tony Awards Nominating Committee, is a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in London, and is President of the Asian American Arts Alliance. Rajan is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma and Yale University. He is an accomplished musician, performing with and conducting for many large and small musical groups as well as for the theatre. His practice also encompasses producing collaborative mixed-media projects with artists, filmmakers, directors, and choreographers for museums, galleries, foundations, biennials, festivals, and venues public and private. “Ravi brings the perfect combination of personal artistic commitment to interdisciplinary approaches, which is vital to CalArts, along with broad experience as an educator, and significant accomplishments as a senior administrator at Purchase College,” said CalArts’ President Steven Lavine. “I am thrilled he will be the person to lead CalArts into its future development as one of the great artistic and educational institutions in the world.” The Board of Trustees, advised by a committee encompassing the entire CalArts community, appointed Rajan at the conclusion of an extensive international search, which evaluated over 500 applicants and began after Lavine announced he would be retiring in June 2015. “To say that Steven Lavine has cast a long shadow at CalArts would be an understatement,” continued Disney. “Under Steven’s leadership, CalArts has become the heartbeat of the creative economy and has ensured that the institution is the epicenter for evolving the ways in which we all interact and experience art and culture in our lives.” Rajan will follow the 29-year tenure of President Lavine. Under Lavine’s leadership, CalArts transformed into a world-class arts institution that consistently defines and shapes culture in our society. Beginning his tenure in 1988 after leaving the Rockefeller Foundation, Lavine was instrumental in stabilizing the school’s financial footing and growing its endowment. In 1990, he established the Community Arts Partnership (CAP), which continues to bring arts education to thousands of underserved students throughout Los Angeles. He helped launch internationally renowned academic and instructional programs in dance, integrated media, masters programs in writing, and doctoral programs in the musical arts. In 2003 he established REDCAT, (the Roy & Edna Disney CalArts Theatre), which greatly expanded CalArts’ reach into both the domestic and international art world. Concurrently, he led fundraising efforts that resulted in new buildings for visual and performing arts, as well as new community spaces. “It’s impossible to think of CalArts without thinking of Steven,” stated Rajan. “I’ve always been in awe of how his leadership and collaboration has allowed CalArts to transform into a global leader in the arts. It’s my hope to continue the richness that he has helped to create and to dutifully guide CalArts through its next evolutionary step.” Rajan will relocate to the Los Angeles area in the summer of 2017. He will be joined by his wife, Lucy Tucker Yates, a renowned opera singer, vocal and diction coach, and the couple’s two sons ages 7 and 3. Ranked as America’s top college for students in the arts by Newsweek/The Daily Beast, California Institute of the Arts has set the pace for educating professional artists since 1970. Offering rigorous undergraduate and graduate degree programs through six schools – Art, Critical Studies, Dance, Film/Video, Music, and Theater – CalArts has championed creative excellence, critical reflection, and the development of new forms and expressions. As successive generations of faculty and alumni have helped shape the landscape of contemporary arts, the Institution envisioned by Walt Disney encompasses a vibrant, eclectic community with global reach, inviting experimentation, independent inquiry, and active collaboration and exchange among artists, artistic disciplines, and cultural traditions. For more information, please visit http://president.calarts.edu.


Kim J.K.,University of Connecticut | Kraemer G.P.,Purchase College, State University of New York | Yarish C.,University of Connecticut
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We investigated emersion-induced nitrogen (N) release from Porphyra umbilicalis Kütz. Thallus N concentration decreased during 4 h of emersion. Tissue N and soluble protein contents of P. umbilicalis were positively correlated and decreased during emersion. Growth of P. umbilicalis did not simply dilute the pre-emersion tissue N concentration. Rather, N was lost from tissues during emersion. We hypothesize that emersion-induced N release occurs when proteins are catabolized. While the δ15N value of tissues exposed to emersion was higher than that of continuously submerged tissues, further discrimination of stable N isotopes did not occur during the 4 h emersion. We conclude that N release from Porphyra during emersion did not result from bacterial denitrification, but possibly as a consequence of photorespiration. The release of N by P. umbilicalis into the environment during emersion suggests a novel role of intertidal seaweeds in the global N cycle. Emersion also altered the physiological function (nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, growth rate) of P. umbilicalis and the co-occurring upper intertidal species P. linearis Grev., though in a seasonally influenced manner. Individuals of the year round perennial species P. umbilicalis were more tolerant of emersion than ephemeral, cold temperate P. linearis in early winter. However, the mid-winter populations of both P. linearis and P. umbilicalis, had similar temporal physiological patterns during emersion. © 2013 Kim et al.


Craddock E.M.,Purchase College, State University of New York | Gall J.G.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Jonas M.,Purchase College, State University of New York
Genetica | Year: 2016

This paper reports genome sizes of one Hawaiian Scaptomyza and 16 endemic Hawaiian Drosophila species that include five members of the antopocerus species group, one member of the modified mouthpart group, and ten members of the picture wing clade. Genome size expansions have occurred independently multiple times among Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, and have resulted in an over 2.3-fold range of genome sizes among species, with the largest observed in Drosophila cyrtoloma (1C = 0.41 pg). We find evidence that these repeated genome size expansions were likely driven by the addition of significant amounts of heterochromatin and satellite DNA. For example, our data reveal that the addition of seven heterochromatic chromosome arms to the ancestral haploid karyotype, and a remarkable proportion of ~70 % satellite DNA, account for the greatly expanded size of the D. cyrtoloma genome. Moreover, the genomes of 13/17 Hawaiian picture wing species are composed of substantial proportions (22–70 %) of detectable satellites (all but one of which are AT-rich). Our results suggest that in this tightly knit group of recently evolved species, genomes have expanded, in large part, via evolutionary amplifications of satellite DNA sequences in centric and pericentric domains (especially of the X and dot chromosomes), which have resulted in longer acrocentric chromosomes or metacentrics with an added heterochromatic chromosome arm. We discuss possible evolutionary mechanisms that may have shaped these patterns, including rapid fixation of novel expanded genomes during founder-effect speciation. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Siegel P.,Purchase College, State University of New York | Demorest A.,Amherst College
Psychotherapy Research | Year: 2010

This article presents a systematic case study of maladaptive interpersonal schemas. These schemas are conceived of as affective scripts, or sequences of behaviors that regulate emotion in interpersonal relationships. Part I presents a test of the method for identifying affective scripts. Independent raters applied FRAMES (Fundamental Repetitive and Maladaptive Emotion Structures; Hoelzer & Dahl, 1996) to a representative sample of transcripts of a long-term psychotherapy. Empirical checks of each assessment procedure verified the identification of five maladaptive scripts in hundreds of narratives and enactments with the therapist. In Part II, these scripts were tracked across treatment to identify adaptive changes. Statistical analyses indicated a reduction in maladaptive scripts and an increase in adaptive changes. The evolution of the most pervasive script is described in detail. Strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed. © 2010 Society for Psychotherapy Research.


Bedard A.-C.V.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Newcorn J.H.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Clerkin S.M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Clerkin S.M.,Purchase College, State University of New York | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective Visuospatial working memory impairments have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most ADHD research has focused on the neural correlates of nonspatial mnemonic processes. This study examined brain activation and functional connectivity for visuospatial working memory in youth with and without ADHD. Method Twenty-four youth with ADHD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an N-back test of working memory for spatial position. Block-design analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity separately for high (2-back) and low (1-back) working memory load conditions versus the control condition (0-back). The effect of working memory load was modeled with linear contrasts. Results The 2 groups performed comparably on the task and demonstrated similar patterns of frontoparietal activation, with no differences in linear gains in activation as working memory load increased. However, youth with ADHD showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), greater functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and left intraparietal sulcus, and reduced left DLPFC connectivity with left midcingulate cortex and PCC for the high load contrast compared to controls (p <.01; k > 100 voxels). Reanalysis using a more conservative statistical approach (p <.001; k > 100 voxels) yielded group differences in PCC activation and DLPFC-midcingulate connectivity. Conclusion Youth with ADHD show decreased efficiency of DLPFC for high-load visuospatial working memory and greater reliance on posterior spatial attention circuits to store and update spatial position than healthy control youth. Findings should be replicated in larger samples.


Thibodeau P.H.,Oberlin College | Perko V.L.,Oregon Research Institute | Flusberg S.J.,Purchase College, State University of New York
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

In 2013, the American Medical Association made the controversial decision to classify obesity as a "disease" in the hopes of encouraging research, reducing stigma, and ultimately lowering the prevalence of the condition. Critics argued that the disease label would reduce feelings of personal responsibility among the obese and therefore discourage healthy self-regulation, a possibility that has received some recent support in the psychological literature. However, public health issues such as obesity are complex and depend not only on personal action, but also on wider societal trends such as social policy interventions. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between four narrative classifications of obesity ("sin", "addiction", "disorder" and "environment") and support for a variety of policy interventions designed to address the issue. An initial norming study revealed that the obesity narratives differed reliably in how much they attributed blame for the condition to the individual versus the environment. A correlational study showed that participants who agreed with narratives that blamed the individual were more likely to support policy interventions that penalized people for being overweight while participants who agreed with narratives that blamed the environment were more likely to support policy interventions designed to protect people suffering from obesity. A follow-up experiment revealed that these narratives had causal power as well: participants exposed to just one of the narratives were more likely to support policy interventions consistent with the blame attribution of the narrative for both obesity as well as anorexia. Individual differences in political ideology and personal experience with weight issues also influenced agreement with the narratives and support for particular policy interventions across these studies. These findings suggest that public messaging campaigns that utilize extended narratives may be a useful tool for increasing support for effective policy interventions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Schulz K.P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Clerkin S.M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Clerkin S.M.,Purchase College, State University of New York | Newcorn J.H.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Functional interactions between amygdala and prefrontal cortex provide a cortical entry point for emotional cues to bias cognitive control. Stimulation of α2 adrenoceptors enhances the prefrontal control functions and blocks the amygdala-dependent encoding of emotional cues. However, the impact of this stimulation on amygdala-prefrontal interactions and the emotional biasing of cognitive control have not been established. We tested the effect of the α2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on psychophysiological interactions of amygdala with prefrontal cortex for the emotional biasing of response execution and inhibition. Fifteen healthy adults were scanned twice with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an emotional go/no-go task following administration of oral guanfacine (1mg) and placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Happy, sad, and neutral faces served as trial cues. Guanfacine moderated the effect of face emotion on the task-related functional connectivity of left and right amygdala with left inferior frontal gyrus compared to placebo, by selectively reversing the functional co-activation of the two regions for response execution cued by sad faces. This shift from positively to negatively correlated activation for guanfacine was associated with selective improvements in the relatively low accuracy of responses to sad faces seen for placebo. These results demonstrate the importance of functional interactions between amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus to both bottom-up biasing of cognitive control and top-down control of emotional processing, as well as for the α2 adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of these processes. These mechanisms offer a possibile method to address the emotional reactivity that is common to several psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.


Daniels C.L.,National Lobster Hatchery | Daniels C.L.,University of Plymouth | Merrifield D.L.,University of Plymouth | Boothroyd D.P.,National Lobster Hatchery | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The effect of dietary application of a commercial probiotic (Bacillus spp.) and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), used singularly and combined, on the survival, growth performance and feed cost-benefit of larval Homarus gammarus was assessed. Un-supplemented Artemia (control) or Artemia enriched with probiotics (100 mg l-1 Bacillus spp.), MOS (12 mg l-1) or probiotics + MOS (100 mg l-1 Bacillus spp. + 12 mg l-1 MOS) was fed to four replicate groups of zoeal I lobsters for 30 days. Carapace length and weight of five H. gammarus from each replicate was recorded on 1, 3, 9, 13, 18 days post hatch (dph) and for post-larval condition at 18 dph. Additionally, moulting success was recorded from 14 to 30 dph with survival calculated at 30 dph. Morphological analysis of the posterior intestine was also conducted on larval and post-larval H. gammarus using light and electron microscopy. In a secondary experiment the effects on gut microbiota were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. After 18 dph, larval H. gammarus fed a diet containing Bacillus spp + MOS had significantly (P < 0.01) improved weight gain, carapace length, weight to carapace length ratio, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and post-larval condition, compared to all other groups. The individual supplementation of either Bacillus or MOS also significantly improved growth parameters, survival and post-larval condition compared to the control group, but to a lesser extent. Survival of all groups was significantly (P < 0.01) elevated after 30 days compared to the control group. Light microscopy demonstrated no significant increases in gut absorptive surface area in larvae or post-larvae receiving biotic supplemented diets. However, electron microscopy revealed significant increases in microvilli length and density in larval and post-larval H. gammarus fed biotic supplemented diets compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Culture-based analysis of gut microbiota demonstrated probiotic Bacillus spp. colonisation in Bacillus and Bacillus + MOS fed larvae. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA revealed that microbial species richness and diversity was reduced in Bacillus + MOS fed post-larval lobsters. Subsequently the microbial profiles of Bacillus + MOS were the most dissimilar to the control group. Improvements seen in the present study appear to be an amalgamation of effects highlighted with the individual use of Bacillus and MOS, and so are probably additive rather than synergistic in nature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cooke S.A.,Purchase College, State University of New York | Minei A.J.,College of Mount Saint Vincent
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2012

The pure rotational spectrum of 2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)oxirane has been recorded using a chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. A total of 317 transitions have been recorded and spectroscopic constants have been determined for the first time. Quantum chemical calculations suggest that at equilibrium the two CF 3-groups have a slightly staggered configuration with respect to one another. However, the barrier to an eclipsed configuration is calculated to be very low, ≈10 cm -1. Arguments are presented suggesting that the zero-point energy of the molecule is above the barrier to the CF 3 eclipsed structure such that the zero-point geometry can reasonably be described as possessing eclipsed CF 3-groups. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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