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Biratnagar, Nepal

Purbanchal University is a public university situated in Biratnagar, the economic centre of Nepal. It was established in 1993 by the Government of Nepal. It is located in an expansive premise of over 545 hectares. This fully autonomous public university is geared to play a substantial role in academic development and quality education in Nepal. Wikipedia.

Boettcher J.P.,Robert Koch Institute | Siwakoti Y.,Purbanchal University | Milojkovic A.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | Siddiqui N.A.,Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: To eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India and Nepal, challenges of VL diagnosis, treatment and reporting need to be identified. Recent data indicate that VL is underreported and patients face delays when seeking treatment. Moreover, VL surveillance data might not reach health authorities on time. This study quantifies delays for VL diagnosis and treatment, and analyses the duration of VL reporting from district to central health authorities in India and Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in 12 districts of Terai region, Nepal, and 9 districts of Bihar State, India, in 2012. Patients were interviewed in hospitals or at home using a structured questionnaire, health managers were interviewed at their work place using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews were conducted with central level health managers. Reporting formats were evaluated. Data was analyzed using two-tailed Mann-Whitney U or Fisher's exact test. Results: 92 VL patients having experienced 103 VL episodes and 49 district health managers were interviewed. Patients waited in Nepal 30 days (CI 18-42) before seeking health care, 3.75 times longer than in Bihar (8d; CI 4-12). Conversely, the lag time from seeking health care to receiving a VL diagnosis was 3.6x longer in Bihar (90d; CI 68-113) compared to Nepal (25d; CI 13-38). The time span between diagnosis and treatment was short in both countries. VL reporting time was in Nepal 19 days for sentinel sites and 76 days for "District Public Health Offices (DPHOs)". In Bihar it was 28 days for "District Malaria Offices". In Nepal, 73% of health managers entered data into computers compared to 16% in Bihar. In both countries reporting was mainly paper based and standardized formats were rarely used. Conclusions: To decrease the delay between onset of symptoms and getting a proper diagnosis and treatment the approaches in the two countries vary: In Nepal health education for seeking early treatment are needed while in Bihar the use of private and non-formal practitioners has to be discouraged. Reinforcement of VL sentinel reporting in Bihar, reorganization of DPHOs in Nepal, introduction of standardized reporting formats and electronic reporting should be conducted in both countries. © Boettcher et al.

Gartoulla P.,Purbanchal University | Liabsuetrakul T.,Prince of Songkla University | Pradhan N.,Tribhuvan University
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: To determine the change in willingness to pay (WTP) measured at pregnancy and at postpartum before and after knowing hospital costs among women who gave birth by normal delivery (NL) and caesarean section (CS) and to identify factors affecting the change in WTP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted from May to August 2009 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. WTP for total costs was measured by double-bound dichotomous contingent valuation and an open-ended technique. The trend of WTP over time was tested using longitudinal analysis. Associated factors to the positive or negative change in WTP were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 438 pregnant women followed up both at pregnancy and postpartum, two-thirds were willing to pay for services at the initial bid of the double-bound method by $60-$85 for NL and $110-$170 for CS. There were no significant differences in the median WTP measured during pregnancy between NL and CS. The WTP of both groups changed significantly over time (P < 0.001). Caesarean section, perception of good care, information provided on delivery costs and discussion with family about cost were significantly associated with changes from pregnancy to the postpartum period. CONCLUSIONS: In low-income countries such as Nepal, where out-of-pocket health care expenditures are common, women perceived the health benefit of delivery care in hospital, especially for emergency CS. Their WTP had changed substantially after delivery, and awareness of the associated factors is essential for further policy and planning to improve the services and utilization. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gupta Choudhury S.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Srivastava S.,Purbanchal University | Singh R.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Chaudhari S.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2014

Conservation tillage and residue management are the options for enhancing soil organic carbon stabilization by improving soil aggregation in tropical soils. We studied the influence of different combinations of tillage and residue management on carbon stabilization in different sized soil aggregates and also on crop yield after 5 years of continuous rice-wheat cropping system on a sandy loam reclaimed sodic soil of north India. Compared to conventional tillage, water stable macroaggregates in conservation tillage (reduced and zero-tillage) in wheat coupled with direct seeded rice (DSR) was increased by 50.13% and water stable microaggregates of the later decreased by 10.1% in surface soil. Residue incorporation caused a significant increment of 15.65% in total water stable aggregates in surface soil (0-15cm) and 7.53% in sub-surface soil (15-30cm). In surface soil, the maximum (19.2%) and minimum (8.9%) proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with >2mm and 0.1-0.05mm size fractions, respectively. DSR combined with zero tillage in wheat along with residue retention (T6) had the highest capability to hold the organic carbon in surface (11.57gkg-1 soil aggregates) with the highest stratification ratio of SOC (1.5). Moreover, it could show the highest carbon preservation capacity (CPC) of coarse macro and mesoaggregates. A considerable proportion of the total SOC was found to be captured by the macroaggregates (>2-0.25mm) under both surface (67.1%) and sub-surface layers (66.7%) leaving rest amount in microaggregates and 'silt+clay' sized particles. From our study, it has been proved that DSR with zero tillage in wheat (with residue) treatment (T6) has the highest potential to secure sustainable yield increment (8.3%) and good soil health by improving soil aggregation (53.8%) and SOC sequestration (33.6%) with respect to the conventional tillage with transplanted rice (T1) after five years of continuous rice-wheat cropping in sandy loam reclaimed sodic soil of hot semi-arid Indian sub-continent. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar S.,University of Buenos Aires | Thapa S.,Purbanchal University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

The title compound, [Co(C 14H 14Cl)(C 4H 6N 2O 2) 2(C 5H 5N)], is a model compound for the more complex cobalamines like vitamins B 12. The Co III atom is coordinated by a 4′-chloro-methyl-[1,1′-biphen-yl]-4-yl)methyl group, an N-bonded pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethyl-glyoximate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The glyoximate ligands exhibit intra-molecular O - H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which is very common in cobaloxime derivatives.

Kumar S.,University of Buenos Aires | Thapa S.,Purbanchal University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

In the title compound, [Co(C 4H 9)(C 4H 7N 2O 2) 2(C 5H 5N)], which was prepared as a model complex of vitamin B12, the Co III atom is coordinated by a butyl group, a pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethyl-glyoximate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The bis-chelating dimethyl-glyoximate ligands, which occupy equatorial sites, are linked by strong intra-molecular O - H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

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