Biratnagar, Nepal

Purbanchal University

puexam.edu.np
Biratnagar, Nepal

Purbanchal University is a public university situated in Biratnagar, the economic centre of Nepal. It was established in 1993 by the Government of Nepal. It is located in an expansive premise of over 545 hectares. This fully autonomous public university is geared to play a substantial role in academic development and quality education in Nepal. Wikipedia.


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Boettcher J.P.,Robert Koch Institute | Siwakoti Y.,Purbanchal University | Milojkovic A.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | Siddiqui N.A.,Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: To eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India and Nepal, challenges of VL diagnosis, treatment and reporting need to be identified. Recent data indicate that VL is underreported and patients face delays when seeking treatment. Moreover, VL surveillance data might not reach health authorities on time. This study quantifies delays for VL diagnosis and treatment, and analyses the duration of VL reporting from district to central health authorities in India and Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in 12 districts of Terai region, Nepal, and 9 districts of Bihar State, India, in 2012. Patients were interviewed in hospitals or at home using a structured questionnaire, health managers were interviewed at their work place using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews were conducted with central level health managers. Reporting formats were evaluated. Data was analyzed using two-tailed Mann-Whitney U or Fisher's exact test. Results: 92 VL patients having experienced 103 VL episodes and 49 district health managers were interviewed. Patients waited in Nepal 30 days (CI 18-42) before seeking health care, 3.75 times longer than in Bihar (8d; CI 4-12). Conversely, the lag time from seeking health care to receiving a VL diagnosis was 3.6x longer in Bihar (90d; CI 68-113) compared to Nepal (25d; CI 13-38). The time span between diagnosis and treatment was short in both countries. VL reporting time was in Nepal 19 days for sentinel sites and 76 days for "District Public Health Offices (DPHOs)". In Bihar it was 28 days for "District Malaria Offices". In Nepal, 73% of health managers entered data into computers compared to 16% in Bihar. In both countries reporting was mainly paper based and standardized formats were rarely used. Conclusions: To decrease the delay between onset of symptoms and getting a proper diagnosis and treatment the approaches in the two countries vary: In Nepal health education for seeking early treatment are needed while in Bihar the use of private and non-formal practitioners has to be discouraged. Reinforcement of VL sentinel reporting in Bihar, reorganization of DPHOs in Nepal, introduction of standardized reporting formats and electronic reporting should be conducted in both countries. © Boettcher et al.


Gartoulla P.,Purbanchal University | Liabsuetrakul T.,Prince of Songkla University | Pradhan N.,Tribhuvan University
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: To determine the change in willingness to pay (WTP) measured at pregnancy and at postpartum before and after knowing hospital costs among women who gave birth by normal delivery (NL) and caesarean section (CS) and to identify factors affecting the change in WTP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted from May to August 2009 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. WTP for total costs was measured by double-bound dichotomous contingent valuation and an open-ended technique. The trend of WTP over time was tested using longitudinal analysis. Associated factors to the positive or negative change in WTP were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 438 pregnant women followed up both at pregnancy and postpartum, two-thirds were willing to pay for services at the initial bid of the double-bound method by $60-$85 for NL and $110-$170 for CS. There were no significant differences in the median WTP measured during pregnancy between NL and CS. The WTP of both groups changed significantly over time (P < 0.001). Caesarean section, perception of good care, information provided on delivery costs and discussion with family about cost were significantly associated with changes from pregnancy to the postpartum period. CONCLUSIONS: In low-income countries such as Nepal, where out-of-pocket health care expenditures are common, women perceived the health benefit of delivery care in hospital, especially for emergency CS. Their WTP had changed substantially after delivery, and awareness of the associated factors is essential for further policy and planning to improve the services and utilization. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Gartoulla P.,Purbanchal University | Liabsuetrakul T.,Prince of Songkla University | Chongsuvivatwong V.,Prince of Songkla University | McNeil E.,Prince of Songkla University
Global Public Health | Year: 2012

Pregnant women giving birth in Nepal need to use out-of-pocket payment for delivery care services due to a lack of insurance policies. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of pregnant Nepalese women to pay for delivery care services and the effects of the current household health expenditure on impoverishment due to hospital-based delivery services, especially normal delivery (ND) and caesarean section (CS). A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to August 2009 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Ability to pay was defined as the current health spending being less than 5% of annual household income. Poverty occurred when a household's per capita income fell to less than US$1 per day. Impoverishment was considered as poverty headcount and normalised poverty gap. On average, the percentage of annual household income spent on current delivery care was 5.9% in the ND group and 9.7% in the CS group. The CS group had a stronger impoverishment effect resulting in a high per cent change of payment-induced poverty headcount by 78.1% and poverty gap by 97.3% compared to 7.7 and 24.1% in the ND group, respectively. There is a strong need to develop a well-prepared financial system to prevent the issue of poverty and impoverishment. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Acharya D.,Purbanchal University | Paudel R.,Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Background Despite greater emphasis on maternal and neonatal health through policy and programming in Nepal, maternal and neonatal health is still not impressive. Health care providers’ knowledge assessment on maternal and neonatal care has been well documented elsewhere, but it is very little understood in Nepal. Objective The primary objective of this study was to assess the critical knowledge of primary level nurse-midwives on maternal and newborn care in Kapilvastu District of Nepal. Method This was an Institution based cross-sectional study, conducted in Kapilvastu district, Nepal among sixty eight nurse-midwives. The participants were selected using simple random sampling technique. For collecting the data, health institutions were visited by enumerators for a month from 1st October to 1st November 2012. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Result More than 3/4th of the nurse-midwives had 10-20 years of experience. Majority of them (89.7%) had poor knowledge in taking action to prevent mother to child transmission for HIV positive women. More than half of them (54.4%) had some knowledge in performing the active management of third stage of labor whereas almost half (51.5%) had poor knowledge to actions needed on post-partum haemorrhage (PPH). Similarly, more than two third (69.1%) had poor knowledge in newborn care. Conclusion Majority of the nurse-midwives were found to have either poor or some level of knowledge in most of the components of maternal and newborn care services. So, greater emphasis should be given to upgrade the knowledge of nurse mid-wives. © 2015, Kathmandu University. All rights reserved.


Shakya S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Shakya S.,Purbanchal University | Coll M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Action thresholds are traditionally based on the density of pests and the economic damage they cause to crops. Pest damage assessments are usually made in a "sterile" environment, devoid of extenuating factors such as predators, parasitoids, and alternative food sources. Recently, the effects of a predator or parasitoid species have been considered. However, interactions between natural enemy species (intraguild predation and interference), which are common in agricultural fields, have not been incorporated yet into decision-making tools. We conducted a series of leaf disc and potted plant trials to evaluate the effects of two predator species, the anthocorid Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and the phytoseiid Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) on the density of and fruit damage inflicted by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We then used the obtained results to develop a pest management decision-making tool for the control of western flower thrips. Because strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) flower in cycles, pollen, a food source for both predators and the pest, is periodically available in the system and has also been incorporated in our decision-making tool. The developed new management tool would allow the relaxation of the economic threshold (ET) for western flower thrips in strawberry flowers. The presence of an average of a single O. laevigatus per flower for example, may allow that relaxation of the ET by 40% (from 10 to 14 western flower thrips per flower) when pollen is available during the winter. Because field monitoring shows that O. laevigatus populations in Israeli strawberry often reach mean densities of three to four per flower, the new approach promises to drastically reduce the employment of toxic insecticides. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.


Kumar S.,University of Buenos Aires | Thapa S.,Purbanchal University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

In the title compound, [Co(C 4H 9)(C 14H 11N 2O 2) 2(C 5H 5N)], the Co III atom is coordinated by a butyl group, a nitro-gen-bonded pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate diphenyl-glyoximate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The crystal structure features two short O - H⋯O bridges between the two chelating anions, with O⋯O distances less than 2.5 Å.


Kumar S.,University of Buenos Aires | Thapa S.,Purbanchal University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

The title compound, [Co(C 14H 14Cl)(C 4H 6N 2O 2) 2(C 5H 5N)], is a model compound for the more complex cobalamines like vitamins B 12. The Co III atom is coordinated by a 4′-chloro-methyl-[1,1′-biphen-yl]-4-yl)methyl group, an N-bonded pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethyl-glyoximate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The glyoximate ligands exhibit intra-molecular O - H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which is very common in cobaloxime derivatives.


Gupta Choudhury S.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Srivastava S.,Purbanchal University | Singh R.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Chaudhari S.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2014

Conservation tillage and residue management are the options for enhancing soil organic carbon stabilization by improving soil aggregation in tropical soils. We studied the influence of different combinations of tillage and residue management on carbon stabilization in different sized soil aggregates and also on crop yield after 5 years of continuous rice-wheat cropping system on a sandy loam reclaimed sodic soil of north India. Compared to conventional tillage, water stable macroaggregates in conservation tillage (reduced and zero-tillage) in wheat coupled with direct seeded rice (DSR) was increased by 50.13% and water stable microaggregates of the later decreased by 10.1% in surface soil. Residue incorporation caused a significant increment of 15.65% in total water stable aggregates in surface soil (0-15cm) and 7.53% in sub-surface soil (15-30cm). In surface soil, the maximum (19.2%) and minimum (8.9%) proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with >2mm and 0.1-0.05mm size fractions, respectively. DSR combined with zero tillage in wheat along with residue retention (T6) had the highest capability to hold the organic carbon in surface (11.57gkg-1 soil aggregates) with the highest stratification ratio of SOC (1.5). Moreover, it could show the highest carbon preservation capacity (CPC) of coarse macro and mesoaggregates. A considerable proportion of the total SOC was found to be captured by the macroaggregates (>2-0.25mm) under both surface (67.1%) and sub-surface layers (66.7%) leaving rest amount in microaggregates and 'silt+clay' sized particles. From our study, it has been proved that DSR with zero tillage in wheat (with residue) treatment (T6) has the highest potential to secure sustainable yield increment (8.3%) and good soil health by improving soil aggregation (53.8%) and SOC sequestration (33.6%) with respect to the conventional tillage with transplanted rice (T1) after five years of continuous rice-wheat cropping in sandy loam reclaimed sodic soil of hot semi-arid Indian sub-continent. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kumar S.,University of Buenos Aires | Thapa S.,Purbanchal University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

In the title compound, [Co(C 4H 9)(C 4H 7N 2O 2) 2(C 5H 5N)], which was prepared as a model complex of vitamin B12, the Co III atom is coordinated by a butyl group, a pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethyl-glyoximate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The bis-chelating dimethyl-glyoximate ligands, which occupy equatorial sites, are linked by strong intra-molecular O - H⋯O hydrogen bonds.


Subedi N.K.,Purbanchal University | Rahman S.M.A.,University of Dhaka | Akbar M.A.,University of Dhaka
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2016

The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. Copyright © 2016 Nirmal Kumar Subedi et al.

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