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Di Mattia C.,University of Teramo | Martuscelli M.,University of Teramo | Sacchetti G.,University of Teramo | Beheydt B.,Puratos Group Industrialaan 25 | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The effect of two conching processes, namely Long Time Conching (LTC) and Short Time Conching (STC), on the content of bioactive compounds and on their activity in chocolate was investigated. The dark chocolates so produced were extracted with both organic solvent and water to investigate the content and different contribution of procyanidins, water-soluble phenolic and melanoidin fractions to the overall antioxidant activity. The procyanidin content and pattern were deeply affected by the different processing conditions: after conching the STC-samples presented a higher amount of monomers compared to the LTC-ones which, in turn, resulted more polymerized as confirmed by the presence of P10 polymers.Both STC- and LTC-products presented comparable phenolic content and FRAP values but products collected at the different conching steps, and in particular during LTC, showed a significant improvement of the radical scavenging properties (TEAC. PROC). The aqueous extract showed a lower antioxidant activity compared to TEAC. PROC. Based on the analysis of the melanoidin fraction, no further development of Maillard reaction occurred as a consequence of conching. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lettieri-Barbato D.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Villano D.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Beheydt B.,Puratos Group Industrialaan 25 | Guadagni F.,Food and Nutrition Unit | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The association between in vitro antioxidant capacity of dark chocolates with different cocoa percentage and the in vivo response on antioxidant status was investigated. In a randomized crossover design, 15 healthy volunteer consumed 100 g of high antioxidants dark chocolate (HADC) or dark chocolate (DC). In vitro, HADC displayed a higher Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) than DC. In vivo, plasma TAC significantly peaked 2 h after ingestion of both chocolates. TAC levels went back to zero 5 h after DC ingestion whilst levels remained significantly higher for HADC. HADC induced a significantly higher urinary TAC in the 5-12 h interval time than DC. No change was detected in urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes. Plasma thiols and triacylglycerol (TG) levels significantly increased for both chocolate with a peak at 2 h remaining significantly higher for DC after 5 h respect to HADC. Results provide evidence of a direct association between antioxidant content of chocolate and the extent of in vivo response on plasma antioxidant capacity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Di Mattia C.,University of Teramo | Martuscelli M.,University of Teramo | Sacchetti G.,University of Teramo | Scheirlinck I.,Puratos Group Industrialaan 25 | And 3 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

This work was aimed to determine the effect of fermentation and drying on the content and profile of procyanidins (from monomers P1 to polymers P10) as well as on the antiradical and scavenging properties of cocoa beans. To this purpose, three experiments were carried out: a traditional fermentation process followed by air drying and two pilot-scale fermentation processes by either natural microbiota or starter followed by sun drying. Procyanidins were evaluated by HPLC analysis, while the total polyphenol index (TPI), the antiradical activity as well as the reducing power were determined by means of the reaction with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the decolorization assays of the ABTS radical (TEAC) and the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods, respectively. Both the traditional and pilot-scale processes resulted to affect the profile and content of the procyanidins fractions as well as the antiradical and reducing power functionality. Drying caused a severe reduction of compounds and thus resulted to be the critical step for the loss of procyanidins and monomers in particular. The indices of functionality generally showed a decreasing trend as a consequence of processing, and their evolution was similar to that observed in procyanidins content. To study the relationship between the individual procyanidins and the antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC, FRAP and TPI, the data set were processed by modified partial least squares regression. The obtained models presented a good predictive ability. Normalised regression coefficients showed that the relative contribution of each single class of compounds to total antioxidant activity resulted as follows: P1 > P2 > P3 > P4 > P6 > P8 > P5 > P7 > P9 >> P10. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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