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Buche F.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts | Buche F.,University Paris Diderot | Davidou S.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts | Pommet M.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts | And 4 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect on O 2 uptake during the mixing of yeasted dough, either unsupplemented or supplemented with glucose oxidase (GOX), horsebean flour (HB), soybean flour (SB), or combinations thereof, was studied using an airtight mixer. Two wheat flours with a low (flour A) and a high (flour B) content of free polyunsaturated fatty acids were used. Addition of HB or SB provokes a similar increase of O 2 uptake for both wheat flours, whereas addition of GOX causes a larger increase for flour A than for flour B. When the wheat flours were supplemented with HB or SB, addition of GOX caused a small but significant increase of O 2 uptake for flour A. This increase was not observed for flour B. The mixing tolerance of dough A, determined with the Chopin Consistograph, is increased by GOX addition. However, this effect is less pronounced when flour A is supplemented with HB or SB. Similarly, the relaxation index of dough B is decreased by GOX addition, but the decrease is less distinct in the presence of HB or SB. These results can be explained by a competition among yeast, GOX, and lipoxygenases (present in wheat, HB, and SB flours) for the O 2 uptake by dough, which likely decreases the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced by GOX during dough mixing. This competition for O 2 consequently also modifies the rheological properties of dough. © 2011 AACC International, Inc.

Anihouvi P.P.,University of Liege | Blecker C.,University of Liege | Dombree A.,Puratos Group | Danthine S.,University of Liege
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

The thermal and structural behavior of four industrial lauric fats, sold under the same commercial description, were investigated by using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to obtain more basic information about their physical properties and particularly, about their polymorphism. The four fats have been classified into two groups based on their fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions: group 1 was characterized by its high concentration of stearic acid and group 2 by its high concentrations in lauric and myristic acids. After cooling and 24 h tempering at 4 °C, groups 1 and 2 crystallized in the β′2 and β′1 forms, respectively. These crystalline varieties corresponded to double-chain-length organizations (2 L) with the long spacing (LS) values around 36.48, 37.43, and 37.65 Å for group 1, and 33.89, 34.00, 35.04, 37.64, and 37.76 Å for group 2. During heating from 5 to 50 °C at 5 °C/min, the two groups evolved, respectively, from the 2Lβ′2 or 2Lβ′1 forms to liquid state without going through the 2Lβ form, indicating their great β′ polymorph stability. However, after rapid cooling (-25 °C/min), all fats exhibited the same polymorphic evolution; they evolved from the α form between -30 and -10 °C to a mixture of α and β′2 forms with the vanishing of α crystal between 10 and 20 °C and that of β′2 polymorph at the temperatures above 35 °C. The passage to liquid state was also realized without the occurrence of β transition. The XRD data were in accordance with DSC melting profiles or with solid fat content (SFC) melting profiles. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Walton G.E.,University of Reading | Lu C.,University of Reading | Trogh I.,Puratos Group | Arnaut F.,Puratos Group | Gibson G.R.,University of Reading
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. Methods. A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2g AXOS) compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in saliva were also measured. Results: Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. Conclusions: AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated. © 2012 Walton et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Anihouvi P.P.,University of Liege | Danthine S.,University of Liege | Kegelaers Y.,Puratos Group | Dombree A.,Puratos Group | Blecker C.,University of Liege
Food Research International | Year: 2013

The physicochemical properties of lauric fats-in-water (O/W) emulsions were examined through a simplified model composed of 30% fat, and buttermilk powder as the emulsifier agent. Four types of lauric fats were studied and their influence on droplet characteristics, rheological properties and creaming stability were evaluated by optical and rheological methods after 24. h of aging at 4. °C. The fat type showed no significant effect on the size and the distribution of droplets just after the emulsification process. However, a slight modification occurred in the droplet size distribution (DSD) of the emulsions after 24. h of storage at 4. °C. The major differences were observed for the emulsion stability and for the rheological behavior even if the fats belonged to the same group. All emulsions presented a shear thinning behavior and showed a higher shear thinning profile at 20. °C compared to 4. °C. Significant differences were also noticed in the emulsion behavior for gelling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Compagnone D.,University of Teramo | Faieta M.,University of Teramo | Pizzoni D.,University of Teramo | Di Natale C.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 4 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2015

Analysis of chocolate flavour through gas sensor arrays has been carried out. Two different set of sensors have been tested to assess the performance of the different sensor arrays: metallo porphyrins and gold nanoparticles peptide coated quartz crystal microbalances. Two series of chocolate samples containing differently formulated products (dark, white and milk) have been tested: the former made of samples obtained under standard process conditions, the second including samples added with some volatile compounds associated to degradation processes and/or low quality raw materials to obtain artificially off-flavoured samples. Analysis with both gas sensor arrays resulted in a good discrimination between standard and artificially off flavoured chocolate samples. The best performance was obtained using the gold nanoparticles peptide sensors with over 90% of correctly assigned samples. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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