Patiala, India
Patiala, India

Punjabi University is a higher education institute located in Patiala, Punjab, India. Punjabi University teaches and researches in science, engineering and technology, humanities, social science, performing arts and sports.It was established on the 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Israel. Originally it was conceived as a unitary multi-faculty teaching and research university, primarily meant for the development and enrichment of Punjabi language and culture, but alive to the social and education requirements of the state. Wikipedia.

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Bali A.,Punjabi University | Jaggi A.S.,Punjabi University
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2015

Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods. © 2015 by De Gruyter 2015.


Jaggi A.S.,Punjabi University | Singh N.,Punjabi University
Toxicology | Year: 2012

Anti-cancer drugs such as vincristine, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, cisplatin and bortezomib are well reported to exert direct and indirect effects on sensory nerves to alter the amplitude of action potential, conduction velocity and induce pain. It results in patient suffering and also limits the treatment with potentially useful anticancer drugs. The different scientists have worked in this area to explore the mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis. Anti-cancer agents activate plasma membrane localized ion channels on dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn neurons including sodium, calcium, potassium, glutamate activated NMDA receptors to alter cytosolic ionic mileu particularly intracellular calcium that trigger secondary changes to induce neuropathic pain. These may include opening of mPTP pore on mitochondria to induce intracellular calcium release; activation of protein kinase C; phosphorylation of TRPV; activation of calpases/calpains; generation of nitric oxide and free radicals to induce cytotoxicity to axons and neuronal cell bodies. Furthermore, the inflammatory process initiated in glial cells and macrophages also trigger changes in the sensory neurons to alter nociceptive processing. The present review elaborates the role of all these individual targets in the pathogenesis of anticancer agents-induced neuropathic pain to develop effective therapeutic modalities for pain management. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Bali A.,Punjabi University | Jaggi A.S.,Punjabi University
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2013

The involvement of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its active peptides, particularly angiotensin II (Ang II), has been described not only in hypertension, but also in stress-associated anxiety disorders. Ang II and its two subtypes of receptors, viz. AT1 and AT2, are localized on stress-responsive brain areas including the hypothalamus-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis. The different types of stressors increase the levels of Ang II and change the expression of its receptors. Transgenic animals with a centrally inactivated angiotensin system demonstrate increased anxiety-related behavior describing the anxiolytic effects of basal Ang II. However, studies showing the anxiolytic potential of AT1 receptor antagonists have described the anxiogenic effects of endogenously released Ang II. It suggests that the basal Ang II (in low amount) may attenuate anxiety, while stress-released Ang II (in high amount) may produce anxiety. By employing AT2-deficient mice, the functional role of AT2 receptors in attenuating stress-associated anxiety has been described. Moreover, AT1 receptor antagonists-induced anti-anxiety effects are associated with up-regulation of AT2 receptors in the brain suggesting that the centrally acting AT2 receptor agonists may serve as potential anxiolytic agents. The present review discusses the dual role of Ang II and its receptors in the development of stress-associated anxiety along with its interrelationship with benzodiazepines (BZD) receptors, and other stress mediators including corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and serotonin (5-HT). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sodhi R.K.,Punjabi University | Singh N.,Punjabi University
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, typified by the pathological accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides (Aß) and neurofibrillary tangles within the brain, culminating to cognitive impairment. Epidemiological and biochemical data have suggested a link between cholesterol content, APP (amyloid precursor protein) processing, Aß, inflammation and AD. The intricacy of the disease presents considerable challenges for the development of newer therapeutic agents. Liver X receptors (LXRa and LXRß) are oxysterol activated nuclear receptors that play essential role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, steroidogenesis and inflammatory responses. LXR signalling impacts the development of AD pathology through multiple pathways. Reports indicate that genetic loss of either lxra or lxrß in APP/PS1 transgenic mice results in increased amyloid plaque load. Studies also suggest that ligand activation of LXRs in Tg2576 mice enhanced, the expression of genes linked with cholesterol efflux e.g. apoe, abca-1, down regulated APP processing and Aß production with significant improvement in memory functions. LXR agonists have also depicted to inhibit neuroinflammation through modulation of microglial phagocytosis and by repressing the expression of cox2, mcp1 and iNos in glial cells. This review summarizes in brief the biology of LXRs, with an emphasis on their probable pathophysiological mechanisms that may elicit the defending role of these receptors in brains of AD patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bali A.,Punjabi University | Jaggi A.S.,Punjabi University
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) is a major cholesterol-derived neurosteroid in the central nervous system and is synthesized from progesterone by steroidogenic enzymes, 5α-reductase (the rate-limiting enzyme) and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The pathophysiological role of allopregnanolone in neuropsychiatric disorders has been highlighted in several investigations. The changes in neuroactive steroid levels are detected in stress and stress-related disorders including anxiety, panic and depression. The changes in allopregnanolone in response to acute stressor tend to restore the homeostasis by dampening the hyper-activated HPA axis. However, long standing stressors leading to development of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety are associated with decrease in the allopregnanolone levels. GABAA receptor complex has been considered as the primary target of allopregnanolone and majority of its inhibitory actions are mediated through GABA potentiation or direct activation of GABA currents. The role of progesterone receptors in producing the late actions of allopregnanolone particularly in lordosis facilitation has also been described. Moreover, recent studies have also described the involvement of other multiple targets including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate, dopamine, opioids, oxytocin, and calcium channels. The present review discusses the various aspects of allopregnanolone in stress and stress-related disorders including anxiety, depression and panic. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Sodhi R.K.,Punjabi University | Singh N.,Punjabi University
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Recent studies have revealed that aberrant vitamin A signaling may lead to memory deficits in rodents. Present study investigates the potential of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) an agonist at retinoid acid family of receptors, in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental dementia. Streptozotocin (STZ) [3. mg/kg, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v)] was administered on alternate days (day 1 and day 3) to induce dementia in Swiss albino mice. STZ mice were administered ATRA (10. mg/kg; 20. mg/kg, p.o.) for a total of 19. days following second i.c.v injection of STZ [day 4 to day 22]. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed on days 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 to assess learning and memory of the animals. Following MWM test, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ treated mice showed marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with fall in GSH level. Further the stained micrographs of STZ-treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. ATRA treatment significantly attenuated STZ-induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. The findings demonstrate that the memory restorative ability of ATRA may be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Sharma B.,Punjabi University | Singh N.,Punjabi University
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2011

Rationale Vascular dementia is the second leading cause of dementia, which is strongly associated with diabetes. Diabetes and dementia have become a major public health concern worldwide. At this point of time, it is very important to find the possible pharmacological agents which may be useful in management and therapy of dementia including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, etc. Objectives To investigate the effect of sodium butyrate on streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes induced vascular dementia in rats. Methods Diabetes and subsequent endothelial dysfunction and dementia were induced in rats by administration of single dose of STZ. Drug treatment was started after 1 month of STZ administration and treatment was continued until the end of the study. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed for testing learning and memory. Endothelial function was measured on isolated aortic rings using student physiograph. Serum glucose, body weight, serum nitrite/nitrate, aortic superoxide anion generation, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity were also tested. Results STZ treatment produced endothelial dysfunction, impairment of learning and memory, reduction in body weight and serum nitrite/nitrate, and increase in serum glucose, aortic and brain oxidative stress (increased superoxide anion, TBARS, and decreased GSH levels), and brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment of sodium butyrate attenuated diabetes induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and various biochemical parameters. Conclusions Sodium butyrate may be considered as potential pharmacological agent for the management of diabetes induced vascular dementia. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Rationale Vascular dementia and hypertension are increasing day by day, with a high degree of co-occurrence. Tremendous amount of research work is required so that new pharmacological agents may be identified for their appropriate therapeutic utility to combat different dementing disorders. Objectives This study investigates the effect of natrium diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (NDDCT), a nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) inhibitor, as well as lisinopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) hypertension-induced vascular dementia in rats. Methods DOCA was used to induce hypertension and associated vascular dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for testing learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed by acetylcholine-induced endothelium-de pendent relaxation of aortic strips. Different biochemical estimations were used to assess oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, and brain glutathione), nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate), and cholinergic activity (brain acetyl cholinesterase activity). Results DOCA treatment significantly raised the mean arterial blood pressure of rats, and these hypertensive rats performed poorly on MWM, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. DOCA treatment also impaired vascular endothelial function and different biochemical parameters. Treatments of NDDCT as well as lisinopril significantly attenuated DOCA hypertension-induced impairment of learning and memory, endothelial dysfunction, and changes in various biochemical levels. Conclusions DOCA-salt hypertension induces vascular dementia in rats. NF-kB as well as ACE inhibitors may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of hypertension-induced vascular dementia. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Gawande D.Y.,Punjabi University | Goel R.K.,Punjabi University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmacological relevance Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) has been used as a brain tonic in folk medicine. Although, ethnic use of medicinal plant has been basis for drug discovery from medicinal plants, but the available in-silico tools can be useful to find novel pharmacological uses of medicinal plants beyond their ethnic use. Aim of the study To validate in-silico prediction for novel nootropic effect of A. aspera by employing battery of tests in mice. Material and methods Phytoconstituents of A. aspera reported in Dictionary of Natural Product were subjected to in-silico prediction using PASS and Pharmaexpert. The nootropic activity predicted for A. aspera was assessed using radial arm maze, passive shock avoidance and novel object recognition tests in mice. After behavioral evaluation animals were decapitated and their brains were collected and stored for estimation of glutamate levels and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results In-silico activity spectrum for majority of A. aspera phytoconstituents exhibited excellent prediction score for nootropic activity of this plant. A. aspera extract treatment significantly improved the learning and memory as evident by decreased working memory errors, reference memory errors and latency time in radial arm maze, step through latency in passive shock avoidance and increased recognition index in novel object recognition were observed, moreover significantly enhanced glutamate levels and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and cortex were observed as compared to the saline treated group. Conclusion In-silico and in-vivo results suggest that A. aspera plant may improve the learning and memory by modulating the brain glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


In our previous study, the saponin-rich fraction (SRF) of adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) was shown to have an anticonvulsant effect in acute animal models of convulsions. The present study was envisaged to study the effect of SRF in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling mouse model and its associated depression and cognition deficit. Treatment with the SRF (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p.) for 15 days in kindled mice significantly decreased seizure severity on days 5, 10 and 15 when challenged with PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.). Marked protection against kindling-associated depression was also observed on days 10 and 15 in the SRF-treated groups when tested using the tail-suspension test. However, the SRF treatment failed to protect kindling-associated learning and memory impairments in the passive shock avoidance paradigm. The observed behavioral effects were corroborated with modulation in the levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate in discrete brain regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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