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Kocher G.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Phutela R.P.,Punjab Agricultural University | Dhillon H.K.,Punjab Agricultural University | Uppal S.K.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Sugar Tech | Year: 2014

The fermentation parameters for production of fermented vinegar from sugarcane juice at 50 L scale were optimized and validated for 3 years (2010-2012) using indigenous strains S. cerevisiae strain 35 and A. aceti AC1 for ethanolic and acetic acid fermentations, respectively. The ethanolic fermentation was complete in 4 days producing ethanol between 8 and 11 % (v/v). The acetic acid fermentation was carried out by providing first 3 days of shaking, which took 23 ± 2 days for producing vinegar having 4.18-6.43 % (w/v) acetic acid. Recycling (2/3rd volume) of previous fermentation batches decreased the fermentation time to 5-9 days with an increase in acetification rate. The 81 days process developed was started with a 36 day of first batch followed by five recycled batches with a maximum of 9 days (each) thus producing 225 bottles (750 ml capacity) of sugarcane vinegar from 250 L juice at an approximate cost of Rs 45/bottle. The sugarcane vinegar produced was of standard quality with a sensory score of 8.3-8.5, had high total phenols and ascorbic acid contents, was rich in five minerals (K, Mg, Na, Ca and P) and seven amino acids (with six essential ones) and was stable for 12 months. © 2013 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Kocher G.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Dhillon H.K.,Punjab Agricultural University | Bakshi D.K.,Punjab State Council for Science and Technology | Arora J.K.,Punjab State Council for Science and Technology
Current Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2013

Emblica officinalis Gaertn (amla) fruit while being processed into candy by food processing industry generates a high brix candy syrup which otherwise is a waste and poses burden to environment. This candy syrup was converted into natural vinegar, a nutrient rich value added food product through two successive fermentations: alcoholic and acetic acid fermentations. Diluted candy syrup (20°Bx) supplemented with raisins was fermented to ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 35 which produced 10.5% (v/v) ethanol in 28 days. The ethanol was further used for production of amla-candy syrup vinegar using cells of Acetobacter aceti NRRL 746. The wort (supplemented with mother vinegar and nutrients in the form of sulphates and nitrogen substrates) with initial acidity of 2% was fermented by A.aceti @7.5% (v/v) and mother vinegar @ 10% (v/v) at 5L scale. This resulted in production of vinegar with a final acidity of 5.7% (w/v) in 14 days having a fermentation efficiency of 75.5±8.21%, acetification rate of 4.11±0.36g/L/d and a yield factor of 0.95±0.07. The fermented vinegar so produced had 180mg/100ml of total phenols and 390mg/100ml ascorbic acid, making it a value added product from an otherwise amla waste. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Jerath N.,Punjab State Council for Science and Technology | Deepali,Punjab State Council for Science and Technology
Asian Biotechnology and Development Review | Year: 2010

The article studies the status of patenting and patented technologies in bioremediation. The main aim of this study was to undertake a detailed empirical and analytical examination of patenting activity in Europe, US and India in bioremediation. The study was conducted by using databases USPTO, Espacenet and India patents and focused on the number of patents granted to inventors from a country by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the European Patent Office (EPO), and the Indian Patent Office (IPO). The study also emphasized on the patents granted entity-wise, organization wise, year wise and category wise etc.

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