Ludhiana, India

The Punjab Agricultural University in Ludhiana, Punjab is one of the State Agricultural Universities in India. It was established in 1962 and is the nation's oldest agricultural university, after Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. It has an international reputation for excellence in agriculture . It pioneered the Green Revolution in India in the 1960s and is considered as one of the best agricultural universities in India.It was bifurcated in 2005 with the formation of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal science University. Wikipedia.


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Khokhar Y.,Punjab Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016

To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Kinnow Mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 6 years old bearing Kinnow Mandarin based on evaporation replenishment (ER) irrigation scheduling during 2013-15. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 30.2-168.2 liters per plant and 23.5-152.5 liters per plant different months during 2013-15. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER) treatment and it varied from 54.1-168.2 liters per plant in 2013-15. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER) based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest TSS, juice per centage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages l-IV during the study period.


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Each year, fires rage across northern India, as farmers burn off their unwanted straw. The impact is enormous. From October into November, massive clouds of smoke streak across Punjab and neighbouring states, blown by the prevailing winds in the direction of Delhi. Every year, ministers demand action – in 2016, they were joined by India’s supreme court. And every year, NASA publishes new satellite photos showing the extent of the burning. People die on the roads as the smoke limits visibility, while heart and lung problems are exacerbated. The fertile fields of Punjab produce about 20% of India’s rice and 40% of its wheat. Rice is grown from May to October, followed in the same fields by wheat from November to March. The turnaround between rice harvest and wheat planting must be quick, as any delay badly affects wheat yields. The 11m tonnes of rice grown in Punjab leaves behind about 21m tonnes of straw – the inedible part of the plant. Farmers typically have just 20 days to clear it away before the wheat season begins. The straw is usually burned openly in the same fields where it was grown, in spite of regulations and knowledge of environmental and human damages. This has been part of Punjabi culture for decades (neighbouring Haryana and Western Uttar-Pradesh follow the same crop cycle in comparable quantities). India is not unique – the state of California burnt residue as recently as the 1980s and straw burning continues in many parts of Southeast Asia and Africa today. Burning is doubly wasteful as the straw is lost to the flames. Each year, the soil loses more carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients. Every acre of paddy yields approximately 2.5 tonnes of straw. Burning that straw sends approximately a tonne of organic carbon into the atmosphere (in the form of gases such as CO , CO and others) along with other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are lots of alternatives to burning, but all have their problems. Paddy straw isn’t nutritious enough to make good animal fodder, and its high concentrations of silica can damage traditional farming equipment. As rice is typically grown in small fields, it also isn’t always possible (or affordable) to use the high-powered machinery necessary to till the straw deep into the soil prior to planting wheat. Other solutions like using straw for biomass power or to make paper all require lots of new infrastructure. Straw is already collected and baled today in a few of Punjab’s large farms, and other areas near biomass power plants. But baled straw is difficult to handle, and bulky to transport and store. Expensive power plants often sit idle for weeks, surrounded by fields of damp straw that cannot be used until dry. Straw burning is illegal but, as the alternatives are either impractical or expensive, most farmers still do it. They’re making a rational decision. Therefore, irrespective of government policy and wider environmental considerations, any solution must give farmers themselves a good incentive not to burn. To resolve some of these problems, we have developed EnergyHarvest. First, paddy straw is compressed into small pellets using technology normally used to produce animal feed. An oxygen-free heating process known as pyrolysis then converts these pellets into energy outputs: heat and “bio-char”, a form of charcoal. These pellets transform paddy straw into something useful. Each pellet contains lots of energy for its size and weight. They’re easy to handle and store, and less expensive to transport than big bales of straw. The bio-char that the pellets are turned into after pyrolysis captures most of the carbon and nutrients present in the original straw. When returned to the ground it makes the soil healthier and retain more water. Meanwhile the heat given off during pyrolysis can be captured and used to produce hot water, or mechanical or electrical energy. It could also be converted into refrigeration for food at half the price of conventional electric cooling. It’s important that these pellets can be used in lots of different ways because different farming areas will present unique requirements and opportunities. We’ve set up a demonstration of the EnergyHarvest technology at the Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) and a series of three-year randomised field trials are underway. The cooling is integrated with the cold-storage demonstration systems at PAU’s food science department. Our work on converting straw into pellets, and processing these pellets into useful products, won’t solve open field burning – or Delhi’s air pollution – overnight. But it does mean that small-scale farmers, the majority of farmers in Punjab, can now do something useful with their leftovers. M.S. Mavi and O.P. Choudhary from the Department of Soil Science at Punjab Agricultural University also contributed to this article. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. EnergyHarvest is supported by grants from the Oglesby Charitable Trust and by Aston University. The demonstration work at PAU is also supported by Coromandel.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-2-07 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2009

The project first assesses the state of the art of SRF as a biofuel source in CDM and JI countries (wp1) focuses on CDM countries (wp2) and links the project to current European and non-European R&D-activities in the area (wp3). Main outputs: 1) SRF guidelines and standards for land use management (wp4) for farmers and European JI/CDM project developers as well as stakeholders from the energy and biomass sector (electric utilities, pulp & paper, fibreboard etc.) 2) a SRF R&D agenda (wp5) for researchers and industry (boiler, oven, chipper, press producers etc.)


Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae), is a serious pest of black gram, (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important legume pulse crop grown in north India. This research investigated the potential role of selected plant oxidative enzymes in resistance/susceptibility to whitefly in nine black gram genotypes. Oxidative enzyme activity was estimated spectrophotometrically from leaf samples collected at 30 and 50 d after sowing (DAS) from whitefly infested and uninfested plants. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The results indicated that in general, whitefly infestation increased the activities of peroxidase and decreased the catalase activity. Resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 recorded higher peroxidase and catalase activities at 30 and 50 DAS under whitefly-stress conditions as compared with non-stressed plants. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. The potential mechanisms to explain the correlation of resistance to whitefly in black gram genotypes with higher activities of oxidative enzymes are also discussed.


Bajwa U.,Punjab Agricultural University | Sandhu K.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Mukhopadhyay S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications | Year: 2014

Attempts to apply nanotechnology in agriculture began with the growing realization that conventional farming technologies would neither be able to increase productivity any further nor restore ecosystems damaged by existing technologies back to their pristine state; in particular because the long-term effects of farming with "miracle seeds", in conjunction with irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides, have been questioned both at the scientific and policy levels, and must be gradually phased out. Nanotechnology in agriculture has gained momentum in the last decade with an abundance of public funding, but the pace of development is modest, even though many disciplines come under the umbrella of agriculture. This could be attributed to: a unique nature of farm production, which functions as an open system whereby energy and matter are exchanged freely; the scale of demand of input materials always being gigantic in contrast with industrial nanoproducts; an absence of control over the input nanomaterials in contrast with industrial nanoproducts (eg, the cell phone) and because their fate has to be conceived on the geosphere (pedosphere)-biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere continuum; the time lag of emerging technologies reaching the farmers' field, especially given that many emerging economies are unwilling to spend on innovation; and the lack of foresight resulting from agricultural education not having attracted a sufficient number of brilliant minds the world over, while personnel from kindred disciplines might lack an understanding of agricultural production systems. If these issues are taken care of, nanotechnologic intervention in farming has bright prospects for improving the efficiency of nutrient use through nanoformulations of fertilizers, breaking yield barriers through bionanotechnology, surveillance and control of pests and diseases, understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions at the molecular level, development of new-generation pesticides and their carriers, preservation and packaging of food and food additives, strengthening of natural fibers, removal of contaminants from soil and water, improving the shelf-life of vegetables and flowers, clay-based nanoresources for precision water management, reclamation of salt-affected soils, and stabilization of erosionprone surfaces, to name a few. © 2014 Mukhopadhyay.


Sandhya,Punjab Agricultural University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Fresh produce is more susceptible to disease organisms because of increase in the respiration rate after harvesting. The respiration of fresh fruits and vegetables can be reduced by many preservation techniques. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology is largely used for minimally processed fruits and vegetables including fresh, "ready-to-use" vegetables. Extensive research has been done in this research area for many decades. Oxygen, CO2, and N2, are most often used in MAP. The recommended percentage of O2 in a modified atmosphere for fruits and vegetables for both safety and quality falls between 1 and 5%. Although other gases such as nitrous and nitric oxides, sulphur dioxide, ethylene, chlorine, as well as ozone and propylene oxide have also been investigated, they have not been applied commercially due to safety, regulatory, and cost considerations. Successful control of both product respiration and ethylene production and perception by MAP can result in a fruit or vegetable product of high organoleptic quality; however, control of these processes is dependent on temperature control. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is emerging as an important pest of wheat in India due to change in tillage system. It causes severe damage by forming dead hearts at seedling stage and white ears at ear-head stage. Studies were undertaken to know the effect of different tillage conditions and date of sowing on the incidence and damage caused by pink stem borer. The experiment was configurated in split block design with tillage conditions as main plot treatment and dates of sowing as sub plot treatment. Both tillage conditions and dates of sowing have significant effect on the incidence and damage caused of pink stem borer. However, effect of tillage conditions on yield was non-significant. Interaction of tillage conditions and dates of sowing indicated that there was no significant difference between two tillage conditions for pink stem borer incidence in the timely sown crop but it was higher in zero tillage if the crop was sown earlier or later than the recommended time period. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Dhall R.K.,Punjab Agricultural University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Edible coatings are an environmentally friendly technology that is applied on many products to control moisture transfer, gas exchange or oxidation processes. Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating to produce and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. One major advantage of using edible films and coatings is that several active ingredients can be incorporated into the polymer matrix and consumed with the food, thus enhancing safety or even nutritional and sensory attributes. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. The success of edible coatings for fresh products totally depends on the control of internal gas composition. Quality criteria for fruits and vegetables coated with edible films must be determined carefully and the quality parameters must be monitored throughout the storage period. Color change, firmness loss, ethanol fermentation, decay ratio and weight loss of edible film coated fruits need to be monitored. This review discusses the use of different edible coatings (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composite) as carriers of functional ingredients on fresh fruits and vegetables to maximize their quality and shelf life. This also includes the recent advances in the incorporation of antimicrobials, texture enhancers and nutraceuticals to improve quality and functionality of fresh-cut fruits. Sensory implications, regulatory status and future trends are also reviewed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Singh P.P.,Punjab Agricultural University | Singh S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2010

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 $/kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 ¢/kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 ¢/kWh in base year to 88.63 ¢/kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 ¢/kWh and not 28.92 ¢/kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required regarding the loan repayment method. It is proposed that to arrive at realistic cost of SPV electricity long-term graduated payment loans may be given for installing SPV power plants such that the escalation in annual loan installments be equal to the estimated inflation in the price of grid electricity with loan period close to working life of SPV system. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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