Ludhiana, India

The Punjab Agricultural University in Ludhiana, Punjab is one of the State Agricultural Universities in India. It was established in 1962 and is the nation's oldest agricultural university, after Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. It has an international reputation for excellence in agriculture . It pioneered the Green Revolution in India in the 1960s and is considered as one of the best agricultural universities in India.It was bifurcated in 2005 with the formation of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal science University. Wikipedia.

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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-2-07 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2009

The project first assesses the state of the art of SRF as a biofuel source in CDM and JI countries (wp1) focuses on CDM countries (wp2) and links the project to current European and non-European R&D-activities in the area (wp3). Main outputs: 1) SRF guidelines and standards for land use management (wp4) for farmers and European JI/CDM project developers as well as stakeholders from the energy and biomass sector (electric utilities, pulp & paper, fibreboard etc.) 2) a SRF R&D agenda (wp5) for researchers and industry (boiler, oven, chipper, press producers etc.)

Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae), is a serious pest of black gram, (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important legume pulse crop grown in north India. This research investigated the potential role of selected plant oxidative enzymes in resistance/susceptibility to whitefly in nine black gram genotypes. Oxidative enzyme activity was estimated spectrophotometrically from leaf samples collected at 30 and 50 d after sowing (DAS) from whitefly infested and uninfested plants. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The results indicated that in general, whitefly infestation increased the activities of peroxidase and decreased the catalase activity. Resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 recorded higher peroxidase and catalase activities at 30 and 50 DAS under whitefly-stress conditions as compared with non-stressed plants. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. The potential mechanisms to explain the correlation of resistance to whitefly in black gram genotypes with higher activities of oxidative enzymes are also discussed.

Dhall R.K.,Punjab Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

The present studies were conducted to obtain infonnation about the effect of ethephon and ethylene gas on ripening and quality of winter tomato using hybrid Avinash-3. The mature green tomatoes were treated with different concentrations of aqueous solution of ethephon (500,1000 and 1500 ppm) for 5 minutes and kept in storage room at 20±1°C and 90-95% RH. The tomato fruits harvested at green mature stage get successfully ripened in 9 days with application, of ethephon (500,1000,1500 ppm) but the rotting was more than 14 per cent till 9th day which makes fruits unmarketable. Therefore, the application of ethephon for ripening is not a good option. The another treatment comprised of exposing the mature green tomatoes to ethylene gas (100 ppm) inside the ripening chamber for 24 hours (20±1°C and 90-95% RH) and thereafter kept in the ripening chamber maintained at 20±1°C and 90-95% RH and this treatment resulted in adequate ripening of fruits after 9 days with unifonm red colour, desirable firmness, minimum rotting and acceptable quality and therefore this treatment is better over ethephon. In control fruits similar results of ripening, firmness, rotting and quality were observed as in case of ethylene gas (100 ppm) treatment but the fruits get longer time (11 days) to uniformly ripen.

Bajwa U.,Punjab Agricultural University | Sandhu K.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Mukhopadhyay S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications | Year: 2014

Attempts to apply nanotechnology in agriculture began with the growing realization that conventional farming technologies would neither be able to increase productivity any further nor restore ecosystems damaged by existing technologies back to their pristine state; in particular because the long-term effects of farming with "miracle seeds", in conjunction with irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides, have been questioned both at the scientific and policy levels, and must be gradually phased out. Nanotechnology in agriculture has gained momentum in the last decade with an abundance of public funding, but the pace of development is modest, even though many disciplines come under the umbrella of agriculture. This could be attributed to: a unique nature of farm production, which functions as an open system whereby energy and matter are exchanged freely; the scale of demand of input materials always being gigantic in contrast with industrial nanoproducts; an absence of control over the input nanomaterials in contrast with industrial nanoproducts (eg, the cell phone) and because their fate has to be conceived on the geosphere (pedosphere)-biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere continuum; the time lag of emerging technologies reaching the farmers' field, especially given that many emerging economies are unwilling to spend on innovation; and the lack of foresight resulting from agricultural education not having attracted a sufficient number of brilliant minds the world over, while personnel from kindred disciplines might lack an understanding of agricultural production systems. If these issues are taken care of, nanotechnologic intervention in farming has bright prospects for improving the efficiency of nutrient use through nanoformulations of fertilizers, breaking yield barriers through bionanotechnology, surveillance and control of pests and diseases, understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions at the molecular level, development of new-generation pesticides and their carriers, preservation and packaging of food and food additives, strengthening of natural fibers, removal of contaminants from soil and water, improving the shelf-life of vegetables and flowers, clay-based nanoresources for precision water management, reclamation of salt-affected soils, and stabilization of erosionprone surfaces, to name a few. © 2014 Mukhopadhyay.

Sandhya,Punjab Agricultural University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Fresh produce is more susceptible to disease organisms because of increase in the respiration rate after harvesting. The respiration of fresh fruits and vegetables can be reduced by many preservation techniques. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology is largely used for minimally processed fruits and vegetables including fresh, "ready-to-use" vegetables. Extensive research has been done in this research area for many decades. Oxygen, CO2, and N2, are most often used in MAP. The recommended percentage of O2 in a modified atmosphere for fruits and vegetables for both safety and quality falls between 1 and 5%. Although other gases such as nitrous and nitric oxides, sulphur dioxide, ethylene, chlorine, as well as ozone and propylene oxide have also been investigated, they have not been applied commercially due to safety, regulatory, and cost considerations. Successful control of both product respiration and ethylene production and perception by MAP can result in a fruit or vegetable product of high organoleptic quality; however, control of these processes is dependent on temperature control. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is emerging as an important pest of wheat in India due to change in tillage system. It causes severe damage by forming dead hearts at seedling stage and white ears at ear-head stage. Studies were undertaken to know the effect of different tillage conditions and date of sowing on the incidence and damage caused by pink stem borer. The experiment was configurated in split block design with tillage conditions as main plot treatment and dates of sowing as sub plot treatment. Both tillage conditions and dates of sowing have significant effect on the incidence and damage caused of pink stem borer. However, effect of tillage conditions on yield was non-significant. Interaction of tillage conditions and dates of sowing indicated that there was no significant difference between two tillage conditions for pink stem borer incidence in the timely sown crop but it was higher in zero tillage if the crop was sown earlier or later than the recommended time period. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Dhall R.K.,Punjab Agricultural University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Edible coatings are an environmentally friendly technology that is applied on many products to control moisture transfer, gas exchange or oxidation processes. Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating to produce and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. One major advantage of using edible films and coatings is that several active ingredients can be incorporated into the polymer matrix and consumed with the food, thus enhancing safety or even nutritional and sensory attributes. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. The success of edible coatings for fresh products totally depends on the control of internal gas composition. Quality criteria for fruits and vegetables coated with edible films must be determined carefully and the quality parameters must be monitored throughout the storage period. Color change, firmness loss, ethanol fermentation, decay ratio and weight loss of edible film coated fruits need to be monitored. This review discusses the use of different edible coatings (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composite) as carriers of functional ingredients on fresh fruits and vegetables to maximize their quality and shelf life. This also includes the recent advances in the incorporation of antimicrobials, texture enhancers and nutraceuticals to improve quality and functionality of fresh-cut fruits. Sensory implications, regulatory status and future trends are also reviewed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Singh P.P.,Punjab Agricultural University | Singh S.,Punjab Agricultural University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2010

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 $/kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 ¢/kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 ¢/kWh in base year to 88.63 ¢/kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 ¢/kWh and not 28.92 ¢/kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required regarding the loan repayment method. It is proposed that to arrive at realistic cost of SPV electricity long-term graduated payment loans may be given for installing SPV power plants such that the escalation in annual loan installments be equal to the estimated inflation in the price of grid electricity with loan period close to working life of SPV system. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jacquemin J.,University of Arizona | Bhatia D.,University of Arizona | Singh K.,Punjab Agricultural University | Wing R.A.,University of Arizona
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

The wild relatives of rice contain a virtually untapped reservoir of traits that can be used help drive the 21st century green revolution aimed at solving world food security issues by 2050. To better understand and exploit the 23 species of the Oryza genus the rice research community is developing foundational resources composed of: 1) reference genomes and transcriptomes for all 23 species; 2) advanced mapping populations for functional and breeding studies; and 3) in situ conservation sites for ecological, evolutionary and population genomics. To this end, 16 genome sequencing projects are currently underway, and all completed assemblies have been annotated; and several advanced mapping populations have been developed, and more will be generated, mapped, and phenotyped, to uncover useful alleles. As wild Oryza populations are threatened by human activity and climate change, we also discuss the urgent need for sustainable in situ conservation of the genus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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