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Kookana R.S.,University of Adelaide | Ahmad R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ahmad R.,Punjab Agricultural Research Board | Farenhorst A.,University of Manitoba
ACS Symposium Series

Sorption is one of the major processes that determine the fate, effects, efficacy and ecological risks of pesticides in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In this chapter we provide an overview of sorption and its dependence on soil properties. Soil solid phase consists of mineral and organic matter; both in strong association with each other make a contribution towards sorption of pesticides, depending on their relative abundance in soil/sediments, chemistry and the chemical nature of the pesticide molecule. We discuss the roles of organic matter and clay contents as well their chemistries in determining sorption of pesticides, and assess the partition theory in terms of its adequacy in describing the observed sorption behavior of pesticides in soil. The complex interactions and heterogeneities associated with the soil solid phase contribute to the large degree of variation in Koc, a parameter that is often used to extrapolate the pesticide sorption estimate, among soils. A more comprehensive approach incorporating soil organic matter as well as soil minerals (both contents as well as their chemistries) is therefore desirable to fully incorporate the role of soil surfaces in sorption of organic compounds. Therefore, we introduce some emerging approaches based on chemometrics and infrared spectroscopy that appear promising for comprehensive representations of the combined role of organic matter, mineralogy and other soil properties in estimating pesticide sorption in soil. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Farooq U.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Pasha T.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Jabbar M.A.,Punjab Agricultural Research Board | Abdullah M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences

Thirty-six Beetal goats in early lactation were used in a 6-wk experiment with a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The objective was to reveal the effects of three levels of DCAD (-15, 2.5 and 20mEq/100g of feed DM) with two levels of K (1.35 and 2.0% of feed DM) and two levels of Mg (0.37 and 0.74%) in diets on productive performance. Increasing DCAD levels in diets significantly increased DMI, milk yield and milk fat percentage. Moreover, increasing K levels in diets increased milk yield of goats. However, increasing Mg levels in diets from 0.37% to 0.74% of feed DM negatively influenced the DMI intake, DM digestibility, milk yield and milk protein contents, as all the traits were reduced by increasing Mg levels. A linear increase in pH and HCO3 − contents of blood and urine by increasing DCAD levels in diets evidenced a positive alteration in acid base status of the animals. However, K and Mg levels of diets showed no effect on same traits. Moreover, increasing K levels of diets reduced the Mg absorption. Similarly, higher Mg absorption, retention and balance were observed when added Mg was increased in diets. Overall, increasing DCAD levels in diets improved DMI and milk yield (3.5 and 11.1%, respectively), however, increasing Mg levels in diets showed negative effects on productive performance of Beetal goats. © 2014, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All Rights reserved. Source

Iqbal Z.,University of Sargodha | Hameed S.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Anjum M.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Dasti A.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Saleem A.,Punjab Agricultural Research Board
European Journal of Plant Pathology

Aetiology of mango malformation (MM) has intrigued the scientists since its inception. The objective of the study was to glean an insight into association of the fungus, Fusarium mangiferae, with different malformed regions, viz. panicle-shoot juncture, apical buds, primary and secondary peduncles, in five exotic mango cultivars. Tissue assays revealed an infection of 88.5, 84.75 and 82.5% in cvs Zill, Sensation and Tommy Atkins, respectively. Least infection of 69.75% was found in cv. Keitt. No exotic cultivar was found to be free of fungal infection. Apical buds proved to be the potential infection site of the fungus amongst the four malformed regions, hosting maximum within-tissue infection of 86.2%. Determination of F. mangiferae at proximal and distant sites of the malformed panicles exhibited maximum recovery of 82.0% at 0 cm and only 3% at >30 cm distance beneath the panicle. In the case of non-malformed panicles, an infection of 14.0% was recorded at 0 cm distance while no detection could be made from non-malformed branches. Moreover, examination of ultra-thin bud sections under Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed inter- and intra-cellular ramification of fungal hyphae, indicating fungal ingress in malformed bud tissues of local cv. Malda. The present studies explored the sites hosting the causal fungus in mango and provide convincing evidence that F. mangiferae is responsible for turning healthy tissues into the malformed condition. These findings suggest that inoculum specific management strategies are needed in future to curb malformation disease in mango orchards. © 2010 KNPV. Source

Abdullah M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Iqbal Z.M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Saadullah M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Haque A.-U.,Buffalo Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin

Buffalo calves are mostly deprived of milk due to premium prices of buffalo milk. The experiment was designed to determine the effect of whole milk, milk replacer and whole milk cum milk replacer on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency in Nili Ravi buffalo calves. Thirty six newborn female buffalo calves were randomly divided into three treatments A (Whole milk), B (50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer) & C (milk replacer). All the calves were offered calf starter (19% CP) from 20 to 120 day of age and free access to drinking water. Green fodder was also offered to all the treatment calves from 60 to 120 day of age. Average daily dry matter intake in treatment A, B and C was 1555.55±221.280, 1488.67±157.65 and 1459.04±172.19 g, respectively, the difference being non significant (P>0.05). The average daily weight gain of treatment A, B and C was 457.38±110.13, 426.67±78.70 and 362.22±107.83 g, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the weight gain of treatment A and C while there was non-significant (P>0.05) difference between the weight gain of treatment A&B and B&C. The mean values for FCR in all the three treatments (A, B and C) were 3.49±0.56, 3.560.50± and 4.30±1.24, respectively. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of treatment A and B was better than treatment C. It can be concluded from this study that 50% whole milk can be replaced with milk replacer in daily milk allowance of Nili Ravi calves without effecting dry matter intake, growth rate and feed efficiency. Source

Iqbal Z.,University of Sargodha | Saleem B.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad S.,University of Sargodha | Dasti A.A.,Punjab Agricultural Research Board
Pakistan Journal of Botany

Taxonomy of the causal fungus of mango malformation (MM) disease has passed through different phases. The fungus at first named as F. moniliforme was elevated to species level as F. subglutinans. Two new species viz. Fusarium mangiferae and F. sterilihyphosum Britz. found responsible for causing MM have been characterized in South Africa in the year 2002. Presence of F. mangiferae in Asian clade emphasized the need to confirm the specific species in the mango orchards of Pakistan. The assay of malformed parts of mango varieties obtained from five districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan revealed the association of four fungi viz., F. mangiferae, F. pallidoroseum, F. equiseti and Alternaria alternata while F. mangiferae proved to be the major infecting fungus. The colonies of F. mangiferae were tinged with purple and rosy buff color on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Macroconidia were four celled with dorsal and ventral surfaces almost parallel. Maximum within tissue infection (40.53%) in five districts was caused by F. mangiferae. The present studies reveal the infectivity and dominant association of F. mangiferae with malformed tissues of diverse origins. Source

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