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Eindhoven, Netherlands

Van Berkel K.,TU Eindhoven | Maessen M.,BRACE Automotive B.V. | Hofman T.,TU Eindhoven | Vroemen B.,Punch Powertrain | Steinbuch M.,TU Eindhoven
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2014

Accurate modelling is of key importance for the model-based design of controlled systems. The overall system complexity can be limited by using simple component models that represent only the main characteristics, where smooth characteristics are preferred to avoid unnecessary irregularities in the design optimization and in the controlled signals. This paper presents the design of such control-oriented models to describe the power dissipation in a mechanical hybrid powertrain. The two key powertrain components are the continuously variable transmission for mechanical power transmission and a flywheel system for kinetic energy storage. The power dissipation in these components is modelled by parametric functions, which are suitable for describing smooth characteristics in a relatively simple format with only a few coefficients. The functions are selected on the basis of the physical understanding of the systems, whereas the coefficients are identified from dedicated test rig experiments. The results show that the power dissipations are modelled very accurately for both the continuously variable transmission and the flywheel system, with a modelling error of less than 75 W for 80% of the operating conditions in a wide operating range between -25 kW and 38 kW. The continuously variable transmission model is also validated under dynamic driving conditions, showing an overall error for the transmission efficiency of less than 1%. © IMechE 2014. Source


Van Berkel K.,TU Eindhoven | Rullens S.,Prodrive | Hofman T.,TU Eindhoven | Vroemen B.,Punch Powertrain | Steinbuch M.,TU Eindhoven
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2014

Mechanical hybrid powertrains have the potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger vehicles at a relatively low cost, by adding a flywheel and only mechanical transmission components to a conventional powertrain. This paper presents a systematic approach to optimizing the topology and flywheel size, which are the key design parameters of a mechanical hybrid powertrain. The topology is optimized from a limited set of over 20 existing mechanical hybrid powertrains described in the literature. After a systematic classification of the topologies, a set of four competitive powertrains is selected for further investigation. The fuel-saving potential of each hybrid powertrain is computed using an optimal energy controller and modular component models, for various flywheel sizes and for three certified driving cycles. The hybridization cost is estimated based on the type and size of the components. Other criteria, such as control complexity, clutch wear, and driving comfort are qualitatively evaluated to put the fuel-saving potential and the hybridization cost into a wider perspective. Results show that, for each of the four investigated hybrid powertrains, the fuel-saving benefit returns the hybridization investment well within (about 50%) the service life of passenger vehicles. The optimal topology follows from a discussion that considers all the optimization criteria. The associated optimal flywheel size has an energy storage capacity that is approximately equivalent to the kinetic energy of the vehicle during urban driving (50 km/h). © 2014 IEEE. Source


Van Berkel K.,TU Eindhoven | Hofman T.,TU Eindhoven | Serrarens A.,Punch Powertrain | Steinbuch M.,TU Eindhoven
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2014

Automotive dual-clutch transmissions use two gear shafts and two clutches to perform automated gear shifts at a high comfort level. The two objectives of the clutch engagement controller are to realize a fast clutch engagement to reduce the gear shifting time, and a smooth clutch engagement to accurately track the demanded torque without a noticeable torque dip. This research work presents a new controller design that explicitly separates the control laws for each objective by introducing clutch engagement phases. Simulations and experiments in a test vehicle show that the control objectives are realized with a robust and relatively simple controller. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ellabban O.,Punch Powertrain | Van Mierlo J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Lataire P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
World Electric Vehicle Journal | Year: 2011

This paper presents a supercapacitor (SC) module connected in parallel with fuel cell (FC) stack to supply a high-performance Z-Source Inverter (HP-ZSI) feeding a three phase induction motor for hybrid electric vehicles applications. The supercapacitor is connected between the input diode and the bidirectional switch of the highperformance ZSI topology. The indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) method is used to control an induction motor speed during motoring and regenerative braking operations to produce the modulation index and a dual loop controller is used to control the Z-network capacitor voltage to produce the shoot-through duty ratio. MATLAB simulation results verified the validity of the proposed control strategy during motoring and regenerative braking operations. © 2010 WEVA. Source


Ellabban O.,Punch Powertrain | Van Mierlo J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Van Mierlo J.,ERTRACs Energy and Environment Working Group | Lataire P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
EPE Journal (European Power Electronics and Drives Journal) | Year: 2011

The Z-source inverter (ZSI) is a recently proposed single-stage power conversion topology. It adds voltage boost capa-bility for complementing the usual voltage buck operation of a traditional voltage source inverter (VSI) with improved reliability. In this paper, a single-loop and dual-loop capacitor voltage control techniques for the ZSI are digitally designed based on a third order small signal model of the ZSI, implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP) and compared. Simulation and experimental results of a 30 kW ZSI during input voltage changes, load disturbances and steady state operations are presented and compared. The results show that the dual-loop capacitor voltage control tech-nique achieves better steady state and transient performance and enlarge the stability margins of the ZSI compared to the single-loop capacitor voltage control technique. Source

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