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Patterson C.A.,Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd. | Curran J.,Pulse Canada | Der T.,Pulse Canada
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2017

Processing of pulses (peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans) is necessary to reduce or eliminate the antinutrient compounds. Conventional processing including soaking, dehulling, boiling, and pressure cooking as well as germination and fermentation reduce the levels of phytate, protease inhibitors, phenolics, condensed tannins, lectins, and saponins. Recent research has investigated how innovative processes such as extrusion, microwave heating, micronization, and irradiation affect the antinutrient content. Germination tends to be most effective at reducing phytate levels, regardless of pulse type. Mixed results on the effectiveness of extrusion, microwave heating, and micronization have been reported. More work is needed to understand how processing of consumer-ready foods containing pulse ingredients affects levels of antinutrient compounds. © 2017 AACC International, Inc.


Roland W.S.U.,NIZO Food Research | Pouvreau L.,NIZO Food Research | Curran J.,Pulse Canada | Van De Velde F.,NIZO Food Research | De Kok P.M.T.,NIZO Food Research
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2017

Pulses (Fabaceae) have regained interest for their high protein level. However, food application of pulses and pulse ingredients is hampered by several issues around their off-flavor. Off-flavors in pulses are partially inherent and partially produced during harvesting, processing, and storage. Generally, volatile off-flavor compounds in pulses belong to the categories of aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, acids, pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and others, and off-taste is strongly correlated to the presence of saponins, phenolic compounds, and sometimes alkaloids. No systematic studies have been performed on the identification of the off-flavor compounds present in pulses in relation to their contribution to the overall perception of the pulses. This review article aims to provide a concise overview highlighting the most important aspects of the knowledge available on the off-flavor compounds present in various pulses, their possible origins, and the technologies available to prevent, reduce, or mask these off-flavor compounds. Rather than attempting to make a full inventory of the literature in the field, this paper addresses the most relevant topics referring to a selected set of relevant papers on each topic to substantiate the observations and conclusions that may guide the reader toward additional literature. © 2017 AACC International, Inc.


Marinangeli C.P.F.,Pulse Canada | Harding S.V.,King's College London
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2016

One of the most recent food trends is the quest for products that provide ‘sustained energy’; a term that is garnering considerable attention within the marketplace. Often, ‘sustained energy’ health claims are based on a food's post-prandial glycaemic response. However, are generalised health claims regarding ‘sustained energy’ valid when only supported by glycaemic response data? Without context, the short answer is: probably not. Health claims that link sustained energy to a glycaemic response, or any other attribute of a food or diet, require context to ensure that the public correctly interprets and experiences the claimed effect and is not misled in their quest for healthy foods that impose the desired physiological benefit. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.


Johnson D.,University of Lethbridge | Duke G.,University of Lethbridge | Irvine P.,University of Lethbridge | Kaminski D.,University of Lethbridge | And 8 more authors.
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Agricultural systems in Canada are extensive in area, but not monitored or managed intensively. We developed informatics methods to better anticipate the severity, timing and geography of emerging pest risks to crops. The target insects, grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae), present special challenges in North America, as well as in China, because they occur as a complex of many species, only some of which represent significant risk to crops. We developed a Geographic Information System of insect and weather data in support of environmentally sustainable control methods. GIS-based maps of the outputs of simple weather-driven models of insect stage were provided to growers through a website containing current conditions. We combined delivery of this information with on-line training and non-technical tools for insect identification and selection of management actions. Color images for over 60 grasshopper species that assist recognition of pest versus non-pest species were provided on-line, with additional details provided in printed booklets (3500 copies were distributed free of charge). We also developed an iPhone application that provides similar information and assistance in recognizing species. We invited growers to attend on-line webinars (75 attendees) and in-person workshops (413 participants) for instruction on using the photographs and identification tips. A post-workshop survey completed by all the attendees indicated that most of the attendees (91%) scout their fields to check for the presence of grasshoppers, and that a majority of the farmers (90%) monitor or check their fields themselves, indicating that individual access to information is a valuable feature. Only 18 of the farmers at the workshops indicated that they had previously used species identification to determine pest risk status. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Stewart A.A.,R0M 0R0 | Alemu A.W.,University of Manitoba | Ominski K.H.,University of Manitoba | Wilson C.H.,Manitoba Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Backgrounding, raising weaned beef cattle in preparation for finishing in a feedlot, is a common practice in western Canadian beef production systems. The objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a pasture-based backgrounding system using an observation-based and model-based approach and (ii) to compare model-based estimated emissions with observation-based emissions from the key components of the farm, in order to identify the knowledge gaps that merit further study. For the observation-based approach, emissions were garnered from a multi-disciplinary field study that examined three fertility treatments applied to the pasture grazed by beef cattle: (i) no liquid hog manure application (control); (ii) split application of liquid hog manure, half applied in fall and half in spring (split) and (iii) single spring application of liquid hog manure (single). The model-based approach used a systems-based model, adapted from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change algorithms, to estimate annual net farm GHG emissions from the three fertility treatments and a hypothetical synthetic fertilizer treatment. Total farm emissions included methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farm components and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use. Net farm GHG emissions using the observation-based approach ranged from 0.4 to 2.2 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 and from 4.2 to 6.5 kg CO2 eq kg-1 liveweight gain exported; the model-based approach resulted in net farm emissions ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 and from 7.0 to 12.9 kg CO2 eq kg-1 liveweight gain exported. Except in the control treatment, both enteric CH4 and soil N2O emissions were the major contributors to total farm emissions. Emissions intensity for the hypothetical synthetic fertilizer treatment (9.4 kg CO2 eq kg-1 liveweight gain) was lower than for the split and single scenarios. Although individual GHG emission estimates varied appreciably, trends in emissions intensity were similar between the two approaches. Efforts to reduce GHG emissions should be directed towards components such as enteric CH4 and soil N2O, which have larger impacts on overall system emissions.


Abdullah M.M.H.,University of Manitoba | Gyles C.L.,University of Manitoba | Marinangeli C.P.F.,Pulse Canada | Carlberg J.G.,University of Manitoba | Jones P.J.H.,University of Manitoba
Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2015

Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake.With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada. © 2015 Mohammad M. H. Abdullah et al.


Jha S.K.,McGill University | Jha S.K.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Mcdermott J.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Bacon G.,Pulse Canada | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014

The paper outlines how the principles of convergent innovation (CI) can be applied to bring about a transformation in the pulse value chain. The paper presents three pioneering CI initiatives--two in conception and one in operation--by various actors in the pulse ecosystem, which are delivering economic and human development impact in particular segments of the pulse value chain. It goes on to propose the way forward to scale up these efforts and connect them into a roadmap so as to achieve transformation throughout society, calling into action a number of actors in the ecosystem. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.


Abdullah M.M.H.,University of Manitoba | Gyles C.L.,University of Manitoba | Marinangeli C.P.F.,Pulse Canada | Carlberg J.G.,University of Manitoba | Jones P.J.H.,University of Manitoba
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million-$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers' general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. © 2015 Abdullah, Gyles, Marinangeli, Carlberg and Jones.


Wilson C.,Manitoba Agriculture | Undi M.,University of Manitoba | Tenuta M.,University of Manitoba | Tremorin D.,Pulse Canada | And 4 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2011

Liquid hog manure (LHM) is used to improve productivity of grasslands in western Canada. However, application of manure to meet crop N requirements can result in excessive accumulation of P, especially in grazing systems. A three-year study was carried out to assess the impact of timing of liquid hog manure application and harvest strategy on nutrient utilization and accumulation by grasslands in southeast Manitoba. Liquid hog manure was applied annually at a full rate of 142 ± 20 kg available N ha-1 in spring (Single application) or as two half rate applications of 70 ± 6 kg available N ha-1, one in fall and one in spring (Split application). Two harvest strategies, haying and grazing, were employed to export nutrients from grasslands. Spring-applied manure averaged 8. 9% dry matter, 5.7 g total N L-1, 1.5 g total P L-1, and 2. 1 g total K L-1 and fall-applied manure from the same source averaged 3.9% dry matter, 4.4 g total N L-1, 0.7 g total P L-1, and 2.2 g total K L-1. Manure application based on grass N requirements resulted in at least two times more P and K applied than recommended for Manitoba grasslands. Nutrient (N, P, and K) export from grasslands was five times higher when grass forage was harvested as hay than through grazing. Average nutrient utilization when forage was harvested as hay was 153 kg N ha-1, 18 kg P ha-1, and 123 kg K ha-1 and was higher in the years with increased precipitation. Grazing was not effective in removing nutrients from grasslands as indicated by lower N, P, and K utilization efficiency (% applied nutrient) in grazed (30% for N, 7% for P, and 18% for K) relative to hayed (75% for N 32% for P, and 103% for K) paddocks. Nutrient accumulation was impacted by a combination of harvest strategy and timing of manure application. Both single and split applications increased soil extractable nutrients, but soil extractable nutrients were higher in grazed relative to hayed paddocks following single manure application. After 3 years of manure application, the amount of Olsen-P (62 kg ha-1) exceeded that required for optimal forage growth. However, soil levels did not exceed the soil Olsen-P regulatory threshold (60 mg kg-1) that restricts manure P applications in Manitoba. An analysis of P balance, for this particular soil, indicated that a surplus of 18.9 kg manure P ha-1 (in excess of forage P exported as hay or weight gain) increased the soil Olsen-P concentration by 1 mg kg-1. Nutrient utilization and accumulation will be impacted by timing of manure application and harvest strategy employed as well as amount of precipitation received during the growing season. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults.A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step.Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million-$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD.Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

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