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Winnipeg, Canada

Marinangeli C.P.F.,Pulse Canada | Harding S.V.,Kings College London
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics

One of the most recent food trends is the quest for products that provide ‘sustained energy’; a term that is garnering considerable attention within the marketplace. Often, ‘sustained energy’ health claims are based on a food's post-prandial glycaemic response. However, are generalised health claims regarding ‘sustained energy’ valid when only supported by glycaemic response data? Without context, the short answer is: probably not. Health claims that link sustained energy to a glycaemic response, or any other attribute of a food or diet, require context to ensure that the public correctly interprets and experiences the claimed effect and is not misled in their quest for healthy foods that impose the desired physiological benefit. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source

Stewart A.A.,R0M 0R0 | Alemu A.W.,University of Manitoba | Ominski K.H.,University of Manitoba | Wilson C.H.,Manitoba Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science

Backgrounding, raising weaned beef cattle in preparation for finishing in a feedlot, is a common practice in western Canadian beef production systems. The objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a pasture-based backgrounding system using an observation-based and model-based approach and (ii) to compare model-based estimated emissions with observation-based emissions from the key components of the farm, in order to identify the knowledge gaps that merit further study. For the observation-based approach, emissions were garnered from a multi-disciplinary field study that examined three fertility treatments applied to the pasture grazed by beef cattle: (i) no liquid hog manure application (control); (ii) split application of liquid hog manure, half applied in fall and half in spring (split) and (iii) single spring application of liquid hog manure (single). The model-based approach used a systems-based model, adapted from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change algorithms, to estimate annual net farm GHG emissions from the three fertility treatments and a hypothetical synthetic fertilizer treatment. Total farm emissions included methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farm components and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use. Net farm GHG emissions using the observation-based approach ranged from 0.4 to 2.2 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 and from 4.2 to 6.5 kg CO2 eq kg-1 liveweight gain exported; the model-based approach resulted in net farm emissions ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 and from 7.0 to 12.9 kg CO2 eq kg-1 liveweight gain exported. Except in the control treatment, both enteric CH4 and soil N2O emissions were the major contributors to total farm emissions. Emissions intensity for the hypothetical synthetic fertilizer treatment (9.4 kg CO2 eq kg-1 liveweight gain) was lower than for the split and single scenarios. Although individual GHG emission estimates varied appreciably, trends in emissions intensity were similar between the two approaches. Efforts to reduce GHG emissions should be directed towards components such as enteric CH4 and soil N2O, which have larger impacts on overall system emissions. Source

Jha S.K.,McGill University | Jha S.K.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Mcdermott J.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Bacon G.,Pulse Canada | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

The paper outlines how the principles of convergent innovation (CI) can be applied to bring about a transformation in the pulse value chain. The paper presents three pioneering CI initiatives--two in conception and one in operation--by various actors in the pulse ecosystem, which are delivering economic and human development impact in particular segments of the pulse value chain. It goes on to propose the way forward to scale up these efforts and connect them into a roadmap so as to achieve transformation throughout society, calling into action a number of actors in the ecosystem. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Abdullah M.M.H.,University of Manitoba | Gyles C.L.,University of Manitoba | Marinangeli C.P.F.,Pulse Canada | Carlberg J.G.,University of Manitoba | Jones P.J.H.,University of Manitoba
Food and Nutrition Research

Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake.With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada. © 2015 Mohammad M. H. Abdullah et al. Source

Johnson D.,University of Lethbridge | Duke G.,University of Lethbridge | Irvine P.,University of Lethbridge | Kaminski D.,University of Lethbridge | And 8 more authors.
Procedia Environmental Sciences

Agricultural systems in Canada are extensive in area, but not monitored or managed intensively. We developed informatics methods to better anticipate the severity, timing and geography of emerging pest risks to crops. The target insects, grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae), present special challenges in North America, as well as in China, because they occur as a complex of many species, only some of which represent significant risk to crops. We developed a Geographic Information System of insect and weather data in support of environmentally sustainable control methods. GIS-based maps of the outputs of simple weather-driven models of insect stage were provided to growers through a website containing current conditions. We combined delivery of this information with on-line training and non-technical tools for insect identification and selection of management actions. Color images for over 60 grasshopper species that assist recognition of pest versus non-pest species were provided on-line, with additional details provided in printed booklets (3500 copies were distributed free of charge). We also developed an iPhone application that provides similar information and assistance in recognizing species. We invited growers to attend on-line webinars (75 attendees) and in-person workshops (413 participants) for instruction on using the photographs and identification tips. A post-workshop survey completed by all the attendees indicated that most of the attendees (91%) scout their fields to check for the presence of grasshoppers, and that a majority of the farmers (90%) monitor or check their fields themselves, indicating that individual access to information is a valuable feature. Only 18 of the farmers at the workshops indicated that they had previously used species identification to determine pest risk status. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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