Pilkington S.A.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust |
Taboada D.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
Martinez G.,Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Anaesthesia | Year: 2015
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disorder of the pulmonary vasculature that leads to increased peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Non-cardiac surgery constitutes a significant risk in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The management of right ventricular failure is inherently challenging and fraught with life-threatening consequences. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology, the severity of the disease and its treatment modalities is required to deliver optimal peri-operative care. This review provides an evidence-based overview of the definition, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension and focuses on the peri-operative management and treatment of pulmonary hypertensive crises in a non-cardiac setting. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Condliffe R.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2011
OBJECTIVE: Echocardiography is widely used in the investigation of patients with suspected SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH). We investigated whether CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides additive diagnostic value. METHODS: Data for 89 consecutive patients with suspected SSc-PAH undergoing echocardiography, CTPA and right heart catheterization were reviewed. Pulmonary artery diameter (dPA) and ascending aorta diameter (dAA), right and left ventricular diameter (dRV and dLV) and grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR(CT)) measured at CTPA and tricuspid gradient (TG(ECHO)) at echocardiography were retrieved. A predictive equation for mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was derived using multivariate linear regression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was then used to assess the prognostic strength of CTPA parameters and TG(ECHO). Results: Absolute measures of dPA and dRV correlated weakly with mPAP. However, dPA : dAA and dRV : dLV showed stronger correlations with mPAP (dPA : dAA r = 0.42, P < 0.001; dRV : dLV r = 0.51, P < 0.001). dRV : dLV correlated more strongly with pulmonary vascular resistance than did dPA : dAA (r = 0.63 vs 0.39, P both <0.001). dPA : dAA and TG(ECHO) were independent predictors of mPAP. A derived CT/echo composite index had a higher predictive accuracy (area under the curve = 0.95) than dPA : dAA or TG(ECHO) although negative predictive value (NPV) was only 77%. Combining the CT/echo composite index with presence or absence of TR(CT) increased NPV to 100% although this observation requires further validation. dRV : dLV was the strongest prognostic factor. Conclusion: In suspected SSc-PAH, cardiac chamber and great vessel measurements at CTPA correlate with pulmonary haemodynamics and predict survival. In combination with echocardiography CTPA increases diagnostic accuracy and may identify other potential causes of breathlessness.
MacKenzie Ross R.V.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
Toshner M.R.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
Soon E.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
Naeije R.,Free University of Brussels |
Pepke-Zaba J.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2013
This study analyzed the relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial compliance (Ca) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and proximal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). It has recently been shown that the time constant of the pulmonary circulation (RC time constant), or PVR × Ca, remains unaltered in various forms and severities of pulmonary hypertension, with the exception of left heart failure. We reasoned that increased wave reflection in proximal CTEPH would be another cause of the decreased RC time constant. We conducted a retrospective analysis of invasive pulmonary hemodynamic measurements in IPAH (n = 78), proximal CTEPH (n = 91) before (pre) and after (post) pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and distal CTEPH (n = 53). Proximal CTEPH was defined by a postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of ≤25 mmHg. Outcome measures were the RC time constant, PVR, Ca, and relationship between systolic and mean PAPs. The RC time constant for pre-PEA CTEPH was 0.49 ± 0.11 s compared with post-PEA-CTEPH (0.37 ± 0.11 s, P < 0.0001), IPAH (0.63 ± 0.14 s, P < 0.001), and distal CTEPH (0.55 ± 0.12 s, P < 0.05). A shorter RC time constant was associated with a disproportionate decrease in systolic PAP with respect to mean PAP. We concluded that the pulmonary RC time constant is decreased in proximal CTEPH compared with IPAH, pre- and post-PEA, which may be explained by increased wave reflection but also, importantly, by persistent structural changes after the removal of proximal obstructions. A reduced RC time constant in CTEPH is in accord with a wider pulse pressure and hence greater right ventricular work for a given mean PAP. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.
Ling Y.,Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit |
Johnson M.K.,Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit |
Kiely D.G.,Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
Condliffe R.,Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012
Rationale: Incident pulmonary arterial hypertension was underrepresented in most pulmonary hypertension registries and may have a different disease profile to prevalent disease. Objectives: To determine the characteristics and outcome of a purely incident, treatment-naive cohort of idiopathic, heritable, and anorexigen-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension and to determine the changes in presentations and survival over the past decade in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Methods: All consecutive newly diagnosed patients from 2001 to 2009 were identified prospectively. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 482 patients (93% idiopathic, 5% heritable, and 2% anorexigen-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension) were diagnosed, giving rise to an estimated incidence of 1.1 cases per million per year andprevalence of 6.6 cases per million in 2009. Younger patients (age < 50 yrs) had shorter duration of symptoms, fewer comorbidities, better functional and exercise capacity, higher percent diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, more severe hemodynamic impairment, but better survival compared with older patients. In comparison with the earlier cohorts, patients diagnosed in 2007-2009 were older, more obese, had lower percent diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide,, and more comorbidities, but better survival. Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) equation, REVEAL risk score, and Pulmonary Hypertension Connection Registry survival equation accurately predicted survival of our incident cohort at 1 year. Conclusions: This study highlights the influence of age on phenotypes of incident pulmonary arterial hypertension and has shown the changes in demographics and epidemiology over the past decade in a national setting. The results suggest that there may be two subtypes of patients: the younger subtype with more severe hemodynamic impairment but better survival, compared with the older subtype who has more comorbidities. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.
Houlihan D.D.,Liver Unit |
Houlihan D.D.,University of Birmingham |
Holt A.,Liver Unit |
Elliot C.,Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit |
Ferguson J.W.,Liver Unit
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013
Background Liver transplantation is potentially a life-saving therapeutic intervention for patients with portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome. However, due to limited data, listing criteria for patients with these conditions have not been clearly established. Indeed, this has led some to speculate that transplantation may not be appropriate in cases of moderate-to-severe portopulmonary hypertension and severe hepatopulmonary syndrome. Aim To critically discuss the utility of LT for the treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. Methods A literature search was conducted in 2012 on PubMed, Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline and Scopus using the following search terms: hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, liver transplantation. Relevant manuscripts were included in the review. Results Liver transplantation has established itself as an effective treatment for selected patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. A multidisciplinary team approach incorporating focused strategies (both pre- and post-operatively) aimed at improving oxygenation in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome has led to a dramatic improvement in patient outcomes. Additionally, careful patient selection and the use of targeted pulmonary vascular therapies are successfully being used to treat portopulmonary hypertension and 'bridge' patients to successful liver transplantation. Conclusions Liver transplantation is an effective therapy for patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. However, rigorous screening and early identification of these conditions allied with aggressive pre-operative optimisation of physiology and diligent post-operative care are imperative to ensuring a good outcome. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.