Amital A.,Pulmonary Institute
Presse médicale (Paris, France : 1983) | Year: 2011
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory disease, affecting about 1% of the population. Although a major portion of the disease burden including excess mortality is due to its extra-articular manifestations, the prevalence of RA-associated lung disease is increasing. RA can affect the lung parenchyma, airways, and the pleura; and pulmonary complications are directly responsible for 10 to 20% of all mortality. Even though pulmonary infection and drug toxicity are frequent complications of RA, lung disease directly associated with the underlying RA is more common. The prevalence of a particular complication varies based on the characteristics of the population studied, the definition of lung disease used, and the sensitivity of the clinical investigations employed. An overview of lung disease associated with RA is presented here with an emphasis on parenchymal lung disease, pleural effusion, and airway involvement. Copyright Â© 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Graif Y.,Pulmonary Institute
Harefuah | Year: 2013
Exercise induced vasculitis (or purpura) is usually misdiagnosed and ignored in the literature, although it is not uncommon. We report two female patients who developed a rash on the lower legs after walking all day long. The rash was red, itchy with a burning sensation. The lesions resolved after a few days with and without steroid treatment. Allergic etiology was suspected, therefore they were sent to the allergy clinic for evaluation. Exercise-induced vasculitis tends to occur in healthy people, especially in hot weather. Extensive investigation with blood or allergy tests is not needed.
Kramer M.R.,Pulmonary Institute
Harefuah | Year: 2011
In recent years, there has been a marked improvement in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to the development of targeted therapies. There are now several treatment options available--oral, inhaled, and those delivered by subcutaneous or intravenous methods. These treatments have greatly improved patient survival, which in the past was 2.5 years on average. Efficient treatment choice generally proceeds from oral therapies--PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil) and endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan or ambrisentan)--to inhaled prostanoids (iloprost) or subcutaneous (treprostinil). Intravenous prostacyclins are used in treating the more severe cases. The different pathways of action of each class of drugs allow a synergistic effect of combination therapy similar to malignancy or patients in congestive heart failure. The updated treatment algorithm includes combinations of therapies that target different pathways. This article will review the literature regarding combination therapy for the treatment of PAH. Combining PAH therapies that target different pathways is now a well-established treatment option, based on numerous international clinical trials, and offers new hope to patients suffering from this severe disease.
Shulimzon T.R.,Pulmonary Institute
Israel Medical Association Journal | Year: 2014
Interventional pulmonology (IP) is the newest chapter in respiratory medicine. IP includes both diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Nanotechnology, in both instrumental engineering and optical imaging, will further advance this competitive discipline towards cell diagnosis and therapy as part of the future's personalized medicine.
Nitzan M.,Jerusalem College of Technology |
Romem A.,Pulmonary Institute
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research | Year: 2014
Oxygen saturation in the arterial blood (SaO2) provides information on the adequacy of respiratory function. SaO2 can be assessed noninvasively by pulse oximetry, which is based on photoplethysmographic pulses in two wavelengths, generally in the red and infrared regions. The calibration of the measured photoplethysmographic signals is performed empirically for each type of commercial pulse-oximeter sensor, utilizing in vitro measurement of SaO2 in extracted arterial blood by means of co-oximetry. Due to the discrepancy between the measurement of SaO2 by pulse oximetry and the invasive technique, the former is denoted as SpO2. Manufacturers of pulse oximeters generally claim an accuracy of 2%, evaluated by the standard deviation (SD) of the differences between SpO2 and SaO2, measured simultaneously in healthy subjects. However, an SD of 2% reflects an expected error of 4% (two SDs) or more in 5% of the examinations, which is in accordance with an error of 3%-4%, reported in clinical studies. This level of accuracy is sufficient for the detection of a significant decline in respiratory function in patients, and pulse oximetry has been accepted as a reliable technique for that purpose. The accuracy of SpO2 measurement is insufficient in several situations, such as critically ill patients receiving supplemental oxygen, and can be hazardous if it leads to elevated values of oxygen partial pressure in blood. In particular, preterm newborns are vulnerable to retinopathy of prematurity induced by high oxygen concentration in the blood. The low accuracy of SpO2 measurement in critically ill patients and newborns can be attributed to the empirical calibration process, which is performed on healthy volunteers. Other limitations of pulse oximetry include the presence of dyshemoglobins, which has been addressed by multiwavelength pulse oximetry, as well as low perfusion and motion artifacts that are partially rectified by sophisticated algorithms and also by reflection pulse oximetry. © 2014 Nitzan et al.