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Cheng M.,Zhoupu Hospital of Shanghai Pudong New Area | Cheng M.,Fudan University | Han J.,Zhoupu Hospital of Shanghai Pudong New Area | Li Q.,Pujiang Hospital of Shanghai Fifth Peoples Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug delivery systems are characterized by targeted drug delivery, improved pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, enhanced drug stability, and lowered side effects; these drug delivery systems are widely used for delivery of cytotoxic agents. The galactosylated chitosan (GC)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticle is a nanomaterial made by coupling GC, a polymer known to have the advantages described above, and 5-FU. We found that when 5-FU and GC were mixed at the mass ratio of 10:1, the nanoparticle reached a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 81.82% ± 5.32%, with a drug loading of 6.12% ± 1.36%, a particle size of 35.19 ± 9.50 nm, and a Zeta potential of +10.34 ± 1.43 mV. The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a sustained release system, whose anticancer effects were shown to be dose and time dependent, with a higher cytotoxicity to hepatic cancer than to other cell types. The distribution of GC/5-FU in vivo revealed the greatest accumulation in the hepatic cancer tissues, with an 8.69-, 23.35-, 79.96-, and 85.15-fold increase when compared to normal liver tissue, kidney, heart and blood, respectively, suggesting that the hepatic cell was the target of the nanoparticles. In vivo experiments showed that GC/5-FU can significantly inhibit tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model. GC/5-FU treatment can significantly lower the tumor weight and increase the survival time of mice when compared to 5-FU treatment alone. Flow cytometry revealed that compared to 5-FU, GC/5-FU caused higher rates of G0-G1 arrest and apoptosis in hepatic cancer cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Cheng M.,Fudan University | Li Q.,Pujiang Hospital of Shanghai Fifth Peoples Hospital | Wan T.,Wuhan University of Technology | Hong X.,Fudan University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2011

While chitosan (CS) has been researched widely as a non-viral vector, its usefulness has been limited by its low cell specificity and transfection efficiency. Therefore, we successfully synthesized galactosylated chitosan (GC) and complexed it with an enhanced green fluorescent protein plasmid (pIRES-EGFP) for transfection into cultured H22 cells (murine hepatic cancer cell line) using various GC/EGFP (N/P) charge ratios. Maximal gene transfection rates detected by flow cytometry occurred at an N/P ratio 5:1. Compared with those of lipofectin/EGFP and naked pIRES-EGFP, GC/EGFP complexes show a very efficient cell-selective transfection to hepatocytes. The MTT assay detected relatively low cytotoxicity in cells transfected with GC. A recombinant plasmid granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-SCF) and interleukin (IL) 21 (pIRES/GM-CSF-IL21) was successfully constructed and GC/GM-CSF-IL21 nanoparticles (average diameter, 82.1 nm) were administered via the tail vein of mice with liver metastasis of colon cancer model, for 5 consecutive days. The GC/GM-CSF-IL21 nanoparticles exhibited hepatocyte and passive tumor specificity, increased therapeutic efficacy compared to control groups, promoted leukocytes to aggregate in tumor tissues, and activated the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL). Our results indicate that GC can be used in gene therapy to improve transfection efficiency and can be used as an immunological stimulant in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Cheng M.,Zhoupu Hospital of Shanghai Pudong New Area | Cheng M.,Fudan University | He B.,Fudan University | Wan T.,Wuhan University of Technology | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug delivery systems provide targeted drug delivery, improved pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, enhanced drug stability and fewer side effects. These drug delivery systems are widely used for delivering cytotoxic agents. In the present study, we synthesized GC/5-FU nanoparticles by combining galactosylated chitosan (GC) material with 5-FU, and tested its effect on liver cancer in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro anti-cancer effects of this sustained release system were both dose- and time-dependent, and demonstrated higher cytotoxicity against hepatic cancer cells than against other cell types. The distribution of GC/5-FU in vivo revealed the greatest accumulation in hepatic cancer tissues. GC/5-FU significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor weight and increased survival time in comparison to 5-FU alone. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays in hepatic cancer cells showed that GC/5-FU was associated with higher rates of G0-G1 arrest and apoptosis than 5-FU. Analysis of apoptosis pathways indicated that GC/5-FU upregulates p53 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. This in turn lowers Bcl-2/Bax expression resulting in mitochondrial release of cytochrome C into the cytosol with subsequent caspase-3 activation. Upregulation of caspase-3 expression decreased poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) at mRNA and protein levels, further promoting apoptosis. These findings indicate that sustained release of GC/5-FU nanoparticles are more effective at targeting hepatic cancer cells than 5-FU monotherapy in the mouse orthotropic liver cancer mouse model. © 2012 Cheng et al.

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