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Olympia, WA, United States

Wulkan B.,Puget Sound Partnership
Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City - Proceedings of the 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference | Year: 2010

In 1999, few professionals in the Puget Sound region were familiar with low impact development (LID). Far fewer possessed the confidence and experience to assert that it should be required for new development and redevelopment projects. Yet research and on the ground projects suggested that LID showed great potential for improving how we develop land and manage stormwater. Based on this potential, the Puget Sound Action Team added LID to the state and federal plan to restore Puget Sound. The 2000 Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan called on local governments in the basin to adopt ordinances to allow and encourage LID. This document, combined with the energy and expertise of many dynamic, forward-thinking professionals in the region, helped make Puget Sound a national leader in the voluntary implementation of LID. Fast forward to August 2008, and the success of this voluntary approach has proven so successful that the state Pollution Control Hearings Board ruled that LID should be required, where feasible, in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Municipal Phase I Permit. In a follow up ruling on the NPDES Municipal Phase II Permit in February 2009, the board directed permittees to take steps to prepare for LID requirements in future permits. LID had shifted in the region, in less than ten years, from a voluntary approach to an NPDES permit requirement. Design and engineering practices typically evolve slowly. Why did this change occur? What factors led to this swift, significant and sweeping change? This presentation will explore the environmental, social and political factors behind this change. Presenting will be Bruce Wulkan, who authored the LID section of the 2000 Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan; managed the first LID national conference in Seattle in 2001; and currently manages the state's LID program for Puget Sound. © 2010 ASCE.


Tallis H.,Stanford University | Lester S.E.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Ruckelshaus M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Plummer M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 19 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

Policies are arising around the world, most recently in the United States, that mandate the implementation of marine spatial planning as a practical pathway towards ecosystem-based management. In the new United States ocean policy, and several other cases around the globe, ecosystem services are at the core of marine spatial planning, but there is little guidance on how ecosystem services should be measured, making it hard to implement this new approach. A new framework is shown here for practical, rigorous ecosystem service measurement that highlights contributions from both natural and social systems. The novel three-step framework addresses traditional shortcomings of an ecosystem services approach by giving managers and scientists the tools to assess and track: (1) the condition of the ecosystem (supply metrics), (2) the amount of ocean resources actually used or enjoyed by people (service metrics), and (3) people's preference for that level of service (value metrics). This framework will allow real world progress on marine spatial planning to happen quickly, and with a greater chance for success. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Biedenweg K.,Oregon State University | Biedenweg K.,University of Washington | Stiles K.,Puget Sound Partnership | Wellman K.,Northern Economics Inc.
Marine Policy | Year: 2016

Marine managers increasingly recognize the interconnections between management strategies, ocean health and human wellbeing. While recent trends in marine policy seek to consider the effects of natural resource management on human wellbeing, most resource management agencies have limited indicators of human elements. Part of the difficulty in addressing human wellbeing is that there is no consensus on its definition nor how it can be influenced by marine health. To address this gap, this paper describes a framework that identifies six domains of human wellbeing that are affected by the status of the environment: physical, psychological, cultural, social, economic, and governance. The framework is then applied in two case studies for developing social attributes and indicators from the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The reactions to the framework and examples of using it to inform marine policy are included, demonstrating that it is a broadly useful, scientifically-grounded structure for selecting environmentally related human wellbeing indicators. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Collier T.K.,Puget Sound Partnership | Anulacion B.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Arkoosh M.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Dietrich J.P.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 4 more authors.
Fish Physiology | Year: 2013

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources and are released from a wide range of industries and everyday activities. Unlike many other organic chemical contaminants that are manufactured and regulated, PAHs continue to be released on a global scale because of the world's dependence on fossil fuels. This chapter briefly reviews the transformation of PAHs in the aquatic environment, highlighting their efficient metabolism in fish and focuses on evidence that links PAH exposure to a wide range of biological dysfunctions in fish. These dysfunctions include neoplasia, reduced reproductive success and other types of endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, postlarval growth and somatic condition, transgenerational impacts, and finally, recent findings showing that the embryonic development of fish is severely affected by extremely low concentrations of PAH exposure. A brief review of the effects of naphthenic acids on fish is also included because these compounds are increasingly recognized as major factors in the toxicity of process waters from a variety of petroleum sources, most notably the immense oil sands deposits found in Alberta, Canada.It is recommended that future research for understanding and mitigating the effects of PAHs in fish and associated aquatic ecosytems should include the following.• Using models to link molecular-up-to-organismal level effects to population-relevant metrics.• Building on current case studies demonstrating the effects of PAHs on the health of fish in their natural environments in order to derive regulatory approaches. Current approaches that rely on biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) will not work with contaminants that are efficiently metabolized by species of concern.• Focusing considerable resources on better analytical chemistry for both PAHs and naphthenic acids. Currently, our ability to understand and mitigate the effects of these substances is heavily limited by constraints in analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Johnson L.L.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Ylitalo G.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Myers M.S.,Myers Ecotoxicology Services LLC | Anulacion B.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

From 2000-2004 a monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the health of fish in the marine waters of Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada. These waters are part of the historical fishing grounds of the Haisla First Nation, and since the 1950s the Alcan Primary Metal Company has operated an aluminum smelter at the head of the Kitimat Arm embayment. As a result, adjacent marine and estuarine sediments have been severely contaminated with a mixture of smelter-associated PAHs in the range of 10,000-100,000. ng/g. dry. wt. These concentrations are above those shown to cause adverse effects in fish exposed to PAHs in urban estuaries, but it was uncertain whether comparable effects would be seen at the Kitimat site due to limited bioavailability of smelter-derived PAHs. Over the 5-year study we conducted biennial collections of adult English sole (. Parophrys vetulus) and sediment samples at the corresponding capture sites. Various tissue samples (e.g. liver, kidney, gonad, stomach contents) and bile were taken from each animal to determine levels of exposure and biological effects, and compare the uptake and toxicity of smelter-derived PAHs with urban mixtures of PAHs. Results showed significant intersite differences in concentrations of PAHs. Sole collected at sites nearest the smelter showed increased PAH exposure, as well as significantly higher prevalences of PAH-associated liver disease, compared to sites within Kitimat Arm that were more distant from the smelter. However, measures of PAH exposure (e.g., bile metabolites) were surprisingly high in sole from the reference sites outside of Kitimat Arm, though sediment and dietary PAHs at these sites were low, and fish from the areas showed no biological injury. PAH uptake, exposure, and biological effects in Kitimat English sole were relatively lower when compared to English sole collected from urban sites contaminated with PAH mixtures from other sources. These findings indicate that while smelter-associated PAHs in Kitimat Arm appear to be causing some injury to marine resources, they likely have reduced bioavailability, and thus reduced biological toxicity, compared to other environmental PAH mixtures. © 2015.

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