Seattle, WA, United States
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Ren X.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Ren X.,University of Maryland University College | Ren X.,Florida State University | Luke W.T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 25 more authors.
Atmosphere | Year: 2014

During two intensive studies in summer 2010 and spring 2011, measurements of mercury species including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM), trace chemical species including O3, SO2, CO, NO, NOY, and black carbon, and meteorological parameters were made at an Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) site at the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Moss Point, Mississippi. Surface measurements indicate that the mean mercury concentrations were 1.42 ± 0.12 ng·m-3 for GEM, 5.4 ± 10.2 pg·m-3 for GOM, and 3.1 ± 1.9 pg·m-3 for PBM during the summer 2010 intensive and 1.53 ± 0.11 ng·m-3 for GEM, 5.3 ± 10.2 pg·m-3 for GOM, and 5.7 ± 6.2 pg·m-3 for PBM during the spring 2011 intensive. Elevated daytime GOM levels (>20 pg·m-3) were observed on a few days in each study and were usually associated with either elevated O3 (>50 ppbv), BrO, and solar radiation or elevated SO2 (>a few ppbv) but lower O3 (̃20-40 ppbv). This behavior suggests two potential sources of GOM: photochemical oxidation of GEM and direct emissions of GOM from nearby local sources. Lack of correlation between GOM and Beryllium-7 (7Be) suggests little influence on surface GOM from downward mixing of GOM from the upper troposphere. These data were analyzed using the HYSPLIT back trajectory model and principal component analysis in order to develop source-receptor relationships for mercury species in this coastal environment. Trajectory frequency analysis shows that high GOM events were generally associated with high frequencies of the trajectories passing through the areas with high mercury emissions, while low GOM levels were largely associated the trajectories passing through relatively clean areas. Principal component analysis also reveals two main factors: direct emission and photochemical processes that were clustered with high GOM and PBM. This study indicates that the receptor site, which is located in a coastal environment of the Gulf of Mexico, experienced impacts from mercury sources that are both local and regional in nature. © 2014 by the authors.

Brune W.H.,Pennsylvania State University | Baier B.C.,Pennsylvania State University | Thomas J.,Pennsylvania State University | Thomas J.,Johns Hopkins University | And 15 more authors.
Faraday Discussions | Year: 2016

Ozone pollution affects human health, especially in urban areas on hot sunny days. Its basic photochemistry has been known for decades and yet it is still not possible to correctly predict the high ozone levels that are the greatest threat. The CalNex-SJV study in Bakersfield CA in May/June 2010 provided an opportunity to examine ozone photochemistry in an urban area surrounded by agriculture. The measurement suite included hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), and OH reactivity, which are compared with the output of a photochemical box model. While the agreement is generally within combined uncertainties, measured HO2 far exceeds modeled HO2 in NOx-rich plumes. OH production and loss do not balance as they should in the morning, and the ozone production calculated with measured HO2 is a decade greater than that calculated with modeled HO2 when NO levels are high. Calculated ozone production using measured HO2 is twice that using modeled HO2, but this difference in calculated ozone production has minimal impact on the assessment of NOx-sensitivity or VOC-sensitivity for midday ozone production. Evidence from this study indicates that this important discrepancy is not due to the HO2 measurement or to the sampling of transported plumes but instead to either emissions of unknown organic species that accompany the NO emissions or unknown photochemistry involving nitrogen oxides and hydrogen oxides, possibly the hypothesized reaction OH + NO + O2 → HO2 + NO2. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Davey N.G.,Vancouver Island University | Fitzpatrick C.T.E.,University of Washington | Etzkorn J.M.,Vancouver Island University | Martinsen M.,Vancouver Island University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to use membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), implemented on a mobile platform, in order to provide real-time, fine-scale, temporally and spatially resolved measurements of several hazardous air pollutants. This work is important because there is now substantial evidence that fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations are important determinants of exposure to air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The study took place in Tacoma, WA during periods of impaired air quality in the winter and summer of 2008 and 2009. Levels of fine particles were higher in winter compared to summer, and were spatially uniform across the study area. Concentrations of vapor phase pollutants measured by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), notably benzene and toluene, had relatively uniform spatial distributions at night, but exhibited substantial spatial variation during the day-daytime levels were up to 3-fold higher at traffic-impacted locations compared to a reference site. Although no direct side-by-side comparison was made between the MIMS system and traditional fixed site monitors, the MIMS system typically reported higher concentrations of specific VOCs, particularly benzene, ethylbenzene and naphthalene, compared to annual average concentrations obtained from SUMA canisters and gas chromatographic analysis at the fixed sites. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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