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Diz-Kucukkaya R.,Nightingale | Lopez J.A.,Puget Sound Blood Center Research Institute | Lopez J.A.,University of Washington
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America

Platelet membrane glycoproteins play a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Although disorders of platelet membrane glycoproteins are rare, their effects on the lives of those affected are very important. Severe deficiencies manifest themselves early during childhood with mucocutaneous bleeding. Mild deficiencies may not be diagnosed until adulthood or until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. The diagnosis of these disorders requires detailed laboratory investigation. Management of bleeding in patients with inherited platelet disorders requires both preventive measures and the treatment of individual bleeding episodes according to severity. The study of platelet membrane disorders also has yielded important insights into the functions of affected proteins, information that has produced some of the most successful antithrombotic drugs currently in use. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Patel S.R.,Emory University | Zimring J.C.,Puget Sound Blood Center Research Institute | Zimring J.C.,University of Washington
Transfusion Medicine Reviews

Traditionally, alloimmunization to transfused blood products has focused exclusively on recipient antibodies recognizing donor alloantigens present on the cell surface. Accordingly, the immunologic sequelae of alloimmunization have been antibody mediated effects (ie, hemolytic transfusion reactions, platelet refractoriness, anti-HLA and anti-HNA effects, etc). However, in addition to the above sequelae, there is also a correlation between the number of antecedent transfusions in humans and the rate of bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection-under reduced intensity conditioning with HLA-matched or HLA-identical marrow. Bone marrow transplant of this nature is the only existing cure for a series of nonmalignant hematologic diseases (eg, sickle cell disease, thalassemias, etc); however, rejection remains a clinical problem. It has been hypothesized that transfusion induces subsequent BMT rejection through immunization. Studies in animal models have observed the same effect and have demonstrated that transfusion-induced BMT rejection can occur in response to alloimmunization. However, unlike traditional antibody responses, sensitization in this case results in cellular immune effects, involving populations such as T cell or natural killer cells. In this case, rejection occurs in the absence of alloantibodies and would not be detected by existing immune-hematologic methods. We review human and animal studies in light of the hypothesis that, for distinct clinical populations, enhanced rejection of BMT may be an unappreciated adverse consequence of transfusion, which current blood bank methodologies are unable to detect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zimring J.C.,Puget Sound Blood Center Research Institute | Zimring J.C.,University of Washington | Spitalnik S.L.,Columbia University
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease

Antibody-induced hemolytic transfusion reactions were first described over 300 years ago. Indeed, during its early evolution, transfusion medicine focused almost exclusively on issues in immunohematology to prevent such events. However, despite the best of efforts to avoid them, incompatible transfusions still occur, through both error and an inability to obtain compatible red blood cells for patients who are alloimmunized against multiple antigens. Because transfusing units of incompatible blood is potentially lethal, studies on human volunteers are not ethical. Thus, understanding of hemolytic transfusion reactions is generated through clinical cases, animal models, inference from related human pathologies, or studies using small volumes of transfused red blood cells. Over the past several decades, substantial new knowledge has been accumulated regarding the mechanisms of hemolysis, the metabolism of products of hemolysis, and the effects of both on recipient biology. Using these data sources, this article traces the historical generation of this knowledge and describes recent advances. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. Source

Kim Y.C.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Zhang A.-H.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Su Y.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Rieder S.A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 5 more authors.

Expansion of human regulatory T cells (Tregs) for clinical applications offers great promise for the treatment of undesirable immune responses in autoimmunity, transplantation, allergy, and antidrug antibody responses, including inhibitor responses in hemophilia A patients. However, polyclonal Tregs are nonspecific and therefore could potentially cause global immunosuppression. To avoid this undesirable outcome, the generation of antigen-specific Tregswould be advantageous. Herein,we report the production and properties of engineered antigen-specific Tregs, created by transduction of a recombinant T-cell receptor obtained from a hemophilia A subject's T-cell clone, into expanded human FoxP3+ Tregs. Such engineered factor VIII (FVIII)-specific Tregs efficiently suppressed the proliferation and cytokine production of FVIII-specific T-effector cells. Moreover, studies with an HLA-transgenic, FVIII-deficient mouse model demonstrated that antibody production from FVIII-primed spleen cells in vitro were profoundly inhibited in the presence of these FVIII-specific Tregs, suggesting potential utility to treat anti-FVIII inhibitory antibody formation in hemophilia A patients. (Blood. 2015;125(7):1107-1115) Copyright 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved. Source

Wallace N.A.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Robinson K.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Howie H.L.,Puget Sound Blood Center Research Institute | Galloway D.A.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
PLoS Pathogens

Recent work has explored a putative role for the E6 protein from some β-human papillomavirus genus (β-HPVs) in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers, specifically β-HPV 5 and 8 E6. Because these viruses are not required for tumor maintenance, they are hypothesized to act as co-factors that enhance the mutagenic capacity of UV-exposure by disrupting the repair of the resulting DNA damage. Supporting this proposal, we have previously demonstrated that UV damage signaling is hindered by β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 resulting in an increase in both thymine dimers and UV-induced double strand breaks (DSBs). Here we show that β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 further disrupt the repair of these DSBs and provide a mechanism for this attenuation. By binding and destabilizing a histone acetyltransferase, p300, β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 reduce the enrichment of the transcription factor at the promoter of two genes critical to the homology dependent repair of DSBs (BRCA1 and BRCA2). The resulting diminished BRCA1/2 transcription not only leads to lower protein levels but also curtails the ability of these proteins to form repair foci at DSBs. Using a GFP-based reporter, we confirm that this reduced foci formation leads to significantly diminished homology dependent repair of DSBs. By deleting the p300 binding domain of β-HPV 8 E6, we demonstrate that the loss of robust repair is dependent on viral-mediated degradation of p300 and confirm this observation using a combination of p300 mutants that are β-HPV 8 E6 destabilization resistant and p300 knock-out cells. In conclusion, this work establishes an expanded ability of β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 to attenuate UV damage repair, thus adding further support to the hypothesis that β-HPV infections play a role in skin cancer development by increasing the oncogenic potential of UV exposure. © 2015 Wallace et al. Source

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