Center for Public Health Research

Valencia, Spain

Center for Public Health Research

Valencia, Spain
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Chen Y.-H.,Center for Public Health Research | Raymond H.F.,University of California at San Francisco
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2017

HIV prevention plans for men who have sex with men (MSM) are often multifaceted. They involve reduction of sexual risk behaviors, such as condomless intercourse, but also often include pharmaceutical approaches, such as early treatment of HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Effectiveness is possibly threatened by individual-level factors, such as depression. In this study of 322 San Francisco MSM (240 HIV-uninfected individuals and 82 HIV-infected individuals, according to self-report), we examine associations between depressive syndromes and HIV risk behaviors (sexual risk behaviors and ART non-adherence). Our study failed to find evidence that depressive syndromes lead to increases in ART non-adherence (risk difference, RD: 27.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: −3.5, 59.3). However, the study does suggest an association between depressive syndromes and concurrence of non-adherence and potentially HIV-discordant condomless receptive anal intercourse (RD: 36.0; 95% CI: 5.2, 66.8). Among HIV-uninfected MSM, our study suggests negative associations between depressive syndromes and sexual risk behaviors. We recommend screening and treatment of depression among HIV-infected MSM. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Bravo I.G.,Center for Public Health Research | Bravo I.G.,CIBER ISCIII | de Sanjose S.,CIBER ISCIII | de Sanjose S.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Gottschling M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2010

A significant fraction of human cancers is associated with infections by different papillomaviruses (PVs). In other vertebrates, the presence of specific PVs is also associated with different neoplasias. The popular view of PVs conceives them to be largely static and relies on generalized assumptions that have rarely been rigorously tested such as: virus-host codivergence, strict tissue tropism and host-specificity, their very low mutation rate and the absence of recombination. Here, we want to stress the need and the medical importance of understanding the evolutionary history and present-day dynamics of PVs. Understanding the way that PV genomes have evolved will clarify the link between a given genotype and the phenotypic and clinical outcome of the corresponding viral infection. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Escriba-Aguir V.,Center for Public Health Research | Escriba-Aguir V.,CIBER ISCIII | Artazcoz L.,CIBER ISCIII | Artazcoz L.,University Pompeu Fabra
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2011

Background: The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims: (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results: At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions: Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers.

Munk C.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Willemsen A.,Center for Public Health Research | Bravo I.G.,Center for Public Health Research | Bravo I.G.,Catalan Institute of Oncology ICO | Bravo I.G.,Lhospitalet Of Llobregat
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: The APOBEC3 (A3) genes play a key role in innate antiviral defense in mammals by introducing directed mutations in the DNA. The human genome encodes for seven A3 genes, with multiple splice alternatives. Different A3 proteins display different substrate specificity, but the very basic question on how discerning self from non-self still remains unresolved. Further, the expression of A3 activity/ies shapes the way both viral and host genomes evolve. Results: We present here a detailed temporal analysis of the origin and expansion of the A3 repertoire in mammals. Our data support an evolutionary scenario where the genome of the mammalian ancestor encoded for at least one ancestral A3 gene, and where the genome of the ancestor of placental mammals (and possibly of the ancestor of all mammals) already encoded for an A3Z1-A3Z2-A3Z3 arrangement. Duplication events of the A3 genes have occurred independently in different lineages: humans, cats and horses. In all of them, gene duplication has resulted in changes in enzyme activity and/or substrate specificity, in a paradigmatic example of convergent adaptive evolution at the genomic level. Finally, our results show that evolutionary rates for the three A3Z1, A3Z2 and A3Z3 motifs have significantly decreased in the last 100 Mya. The analysis constitutes a textbook example of the evolution of a gene locus by duplication and sub/neofunctionalization in the context of virus-host arms race. Conclusions: Our results provide a time framework for identifying ancestral and derived genomic arrangements in the APOBEC loci, and to date the expansion of this gene family for different lineages through time, as a response to changes in viral/retroviral/retrotransposon pressure. © 2012 Münk et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Coscolla C.,Center for Public Health Research | Castillo M.,Center for Public Health Research | Pastor A.,University of Valencia | Yusa V.,Center for Public Health Research
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

A confirmatory and sensitive procedure has been developed for the determination of 40 currently used pesticides (CUPs) in airborne particulate matter (PM 10) at trace level. The proposed method includes extraction of PM 10-bound pesticides by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) clean-up and determination by GC-MS/MS. The injection mode and the main parameters in MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect was also evaluated. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% except for pyrimethanil and pirimicarb. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 1.32 to 39.47pgm-3, when air volumes of 760m3 were collected. The method was applied to 38 samples collected from a rural station belonging to the atmospheric monitoring network of the Regional Valencia Government (Spain) during April-June 2010. Eighteen out of 40 pesticides investigated were found in at least one sample (bifenthrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyriphos-e, chlorpyriphos-m, clorpropham, diazinon, dicofol, diphenylamine, fipronil, fludioxonil, folpet, malathion, metalaxyl, penconazole, quinoxyfen, triadimefon, trifluralin, and vinclozoline), with concentrations ranging from 1.32 to 625.80pgm-3. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Brunekreef B.,University Utrecht | Von Mutius E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wong G.,Prince of Wales Hospital | Odhiambo J.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND:: Associations between exposure to cats and dogs and respiratory and allergic outcomes in children have been reported in affluent countries, but little is known about such associations in less-affluent countries. METHODS:: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, phase 3 was carried out in children aged 6-7 years and adolescents aged 13-14 years across the world. Questions about cats and dogs in the home were included in an additional questionnaire. Using logistic regression, we investigated the association between such exposures and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema. Adjustments were made for sex, region of the world, language, gross national income per capita, and 10 other covariates. RESULTS:: Among children (6-7 years of age), cat exposure in the first year of life was associated with current symptoms of asthma, wheeze, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema, especially in less-affluent countries. Among adolescents (13-14 years of age), we found a positive association between exposure to cats or dogs and symptom prevalence in more-affluent and less-affluent countries. The global multivariate odds ratios for children with complete covariate data were 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.29) for current symptoms of asthma, 1.13 (1.05-1.23) for rhinoconjunctivitis, and 1.38 (1.26-1.52) for eczema. Smaller odds ratios were found for exposure to only dogs. Exposure to only cats was associated with eczema. CONCLUSION:: Early-life exposure to cats is a risk factor for symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 6-to 7-year-old children, especially in less-affluent countries. Current exposure to cats and dogs combined, and only to dogs, is a risk factor for symptom reporting by 13-to 14-year-old adolescents worldwide. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rowe C.,Center for Public Health Research | Santos G.-M.,Center for Public Health Research | McFarland W.,Center for Public Health Research | Wilson E.C.,Center for Public Health Research
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2015

Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among transgender (trans*) females and has been associated with negative health outcomes, including HIV infection. Little is known about psychosocial risk factors that may influence the onset of substance use among trans*female youth, which can contribute to health disparities during adulthood. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis of a study on HIV risk and resilience among trans*female youth (N= 292). Prevalence of substance use was assessed and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, gender-related discrimination, parental drug or alcohol problems (PDAP) and multiple substance use outcomes. Results: Most (69%) of the trans*female youth reported recent drug use. In multivariable analyses, those with PTSD had increased odds of drug use [AOR = 1.94 (95% CI = 1.09-3.44)]. Those who experienced gender-related discrimination had increased odds of drug use [AOR = 2.28 (95% CI = 1.17-4.44)], drug use concurrent with sex [AOR = 2.35 (95% CI = 1.11-4.98)] and use of multiple drugs [AOR = 3.24 (95% CI = 1.52-6.88)]. Those with psychological distress had increased odds of using multiple heavy drugs [AOR = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.01-5.12)]. Those with PDAP had increased odds of drugs use [AOR = 2.62 (95% CI = 1.43-4.82)], drug use concurrent with sex [AOR = 2.01 (95% CI, 1.15-3.51)] and use of multiple drugs [AOR = 2.10 (95% CI = 1.22-3.62)]. Conclusions: Substance use is highly prevalent among trans*female youth and was significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors. In order to effectively address substance use among trans*female youth, efforts must address coping related to gender-based discrimination and trauma. Furthermore, structural level interventions aiming to reduce stigma and gender-identity discrimination might also be effective. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Coscolla C.,Center for Public Health Research | Navarro-Olivares S.,Center for Public Health Research | Marti P.,Center for Public Health Research | Yusa V.,Center for Public Health Research
Talanta | Year: 2014

When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. DoE identify significant factors and then optimise a response with respect to them in method development. In this work, a headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) methodology for the simultaneous determination of six important organotin compounds namely monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT) has been optimized using a statistical design of experiments (DOE). The analytical method is based on the ethylation with NaBEt4 and simultaneous headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction of the derivative compounds followed by GC-MS/MS analysis. The main experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency selected for optimization were pre-incubation time, incubation temperature, agitator speed, extraction time, desorption temperature, buffer (pH, concentration and volume), headspace volume, sample salinity, preparation of standards, ultrasonic time and desorption time in the injector. The main factors (excitation voltage, excitation time, ion source temperature, isolation time and electron energy) affecting the GC-IT-MS/MS response were also optimized using the same statistical design of experiments. The proposed method presented good linearity (coefficient of determination R2>0.99) and repeatibilty (1-25%) for all the compounds under study. The accuracy of the method measured as the average percentage recovery of the compounds in spiked surface and marine waters was higher than 70% for all compounds studied. Finally, the optimized methodology was applied to real aqueous samples enabled the simultaneous determination of all compounds under study in surface and marine water samples obtained from Valencia region (Spain). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Chen Y.-H.,Center for Public Health Research | McFarland W.,Center for Public Health Research | Raymond H.F.,Center for Public Health Research
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2014

While injection drug users (IDU) in the USA are known to form sexual partnerships with IDU as well as non-IDU, scientific research is lacking regarding risk behaviors for HIV transmission within these partnerships. Such information could aid HIV-prevention efforts among IDU and could also explain the relatively low prevalence of HIV among non-IDU heterosexuals in US cities such as San Francisco. Using data from a cross-sectional sample of San Francisco IDU we estimated (1) the prevalence of IDU-IDU and IDU-non-IDU sexual partnerships, (2) the frequency of serodiscordant unprotected intercourse in IDU-IDU and IDU-non-IDU sexual partnerships, and (3) the frequency of concurrence of sexual risk and injection-related risk within IDU-IDU sexual partnerships. An estimated 68% of sexually active San Francisco IDU is in IDU-IDU partnerships. Our analysis suggests that compared to IDU-non-IDU partnerships, IDU-IDU partnerships include a greater rate of episodes of serodiscordant unprotected intercourse (incidence rate ratio: 10.2; 95% confidence interval: 2.1-50.7). In fact, our data suggest that 92% of serodiscordant sexual episodes involving IDU are attributable to IDU-IDU pairings. Unprotected intercourse and needle sharing occur concurrently in an estimated 29% of IDU-IDU partnerships. Our data suggest that HIV-transmission risk is higher within IDU-IDU partnerships than it is within IDU-non-IDU partnerships. This disparity could explain the relatively low prevalence of HIV among non-IDU heterosexuals in San Francisco. We recommend that HIV-prevention efforts among IDU continue to address sexual risk behaviors for HIV transmission in addition to injection-related risk behaviors, with emphasis on IDU-IDU partnerships. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Wilson E.,Center for Public Health Research | Rapues J.,Center for Public Health Research | Jin H.,Center for Public Health Research | Raymond H.F.,Center for Public Health Research
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2014

Introduction: There is a dearth of studies to quantify the use of illicit fillers by transwomen. Case studies of illicit filler injections have pointed to an array of serious health complications, including death. Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the population prevalence and identify correlates of filler use among transwomen in San Francisco, CA. Methods: An analysis of data collected in 2013 with a population-based sample of 233 transwomen recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). We used RDS weights to conduct bivariate and multivariate analyses of correlates of filler use. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures were an RDS-weighted population prevalence of filler use among transwomen and differences in demographic characteristics, transition-related care factors, and self-esteem related to appearance. Results: Weighted filler prevalence among transwomen was 16.7%. Being a transwoman between 30 and 49 years of age, owning/renting or living with a partner/family/friend, having had and planning to have surgery in the future, and having used nonprescribed hormones were all significantly associated with filler use. HIV was not associated with filler use. Conclusions: This study provides the first known estimate to date of the prevalence of filler use in a population-based sample of transwomen in San Francisco. Accessing illicit fillers may be the only choice available for many transwomen to make changes to their appearance due to the high cost of legal surgeries and other cosmetic procedures. An important next step in this research is to determine the overall prevalence and long-term consequences of filler use among transwomen, to explore how the use of fillers is protective to the safety and well-being of transwomen, and to find safe and affordable alternatives to this method that meet important gender-related appearance needs. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

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