Time filter

Source Type

The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully.


Todaka T.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation | Honda A.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation | Imaji M.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation | Takao Y.,Fukuoka Institute of Health Environmental | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2016

Background: Oral colestimide was reported to lower the concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCB in the blood of humans. A pilot study showed that the arithmetic mean total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of subjects after the trial decreased approximately 20 % compared to pre-trial levels, suggesting that colestimide could decrease human dioxin levels. We designed the current clinical trial study based on this information. In this study, we examined whether colestimide could reduce the individual congener concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of Yusho patients. Methods: Out of the 36 Yusho patients who participated in the clinical trial, 26 patients self-administered colestimide 3 g/day orally for 6 months. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in the blood of 26 Yusho patients before the trial were compared with those after the trial. Results: The arithmetic mean total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in the blood of the 26 Yusho patients before and after the clinical trial were 42-303 (mean: 130, median: 120) and 43-283 (mean: 132, median: 118) pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of 58 PCB congeners measured in the blood of Yusho patients before and after the trial were 321-2643 (mean: 957, median: 872) and 286-2007 (mean: 975, median: 806) ng/g lipid, respectively, indicating that the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs after the trial were almost the same as those before the trial. Among congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs, most congeners of these compounds did not show a statistically significant decrease after the trial. Conclusion: Colestimide may not be beneficial in reducing the high blood levels of dioxin-like compounds in Yusho patients. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, University of Shizuoka, Japan National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2014

Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramers classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 g/person/day and 60-1250 g/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 g/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.


PubMed | Public Interest Incorporated Foundation, Kyushu University and Fukuoka Institute of Health Environmental
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental health : a global access science source | Year: 2016

Oral colestimide was reported to lower the concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCB in the blood of humans. A pilot study showed that the arithmetic mean total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of subjects after the trial decreased approximately 20% compared to pre-trial levels, suggesting that colestimide could decrease human dioxin levels. We designed the current clinical trial study based on this information. In this study, we examined whether colestimide could reduce the individual congener concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of Yusho patients.Out of the 36 Yusho patients who participated in the clinical trial, 26 patients self-administered colestimide 3g/day orally for 6months. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in the blood of 26 Yusho patients before the trial were compared with those after the trial.The arithmetic mean total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in the blood of the 26 Yusho patients before and after the clinical trial were 42-303 (mean: 130, median: 120) and 43-283 (mean: 132, median: 118) pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of 58 PCB congeners measured in the blood of Yusho patients before and after the trial were 321-2643 (mean: 957, median: 872) and 286-2007 (mean: 975, median: 806) ng/g lipid, respectively, indicating that the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs after the trial were almost the same as those before the trial. Among congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs, most congeners of these compounds did not show a statistically significant decrease after the trial.Colestimide may not be beneficial in reducing the high blood levels of dioxin-like compounds in Yusho patients.


PubMed | Yokohama College of Pharmacy, Public Interest Incorporated Foundation, Toho University and Medical Corporation JISENKAI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The serum levels of several metabolites are significantly altered in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we performed a targeted analysis of 34 candidate metabolites in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and compared them with those in age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n=27). Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis revealed that complete separation between controls and patients was achieved based on these metabolites. We found that the levels of -glutamylcysteine (-GluCys), linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, D-serine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glutathione (GSH), 5-hydroxytryptamine, threonine, and tyrosine were significantly lower, while D-lactate, tryptophan, kynurenine, and glutamate levels were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under curve of -GluCys, a precursor of GSH, and D-lactate, a terminal metabolite of methylglyoxal, were 88.00%, 81.48%, and 0.8874, and 88.00%, 77.78%, and 0.8415, respectively. In addition, serum levels of D-lactate were negatively correlated with -GluCys levels in patients, but not in controls. The present results suggest that oxidative stress-induced damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.


PubMed | Public Interest Incorporated Foundation, Osaka Prefecture University and Litron Laboratories, Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis | Year: 2014

In anticipation of proposed OECD guideline changes that may include increasing the number of reticulocytes scored for micronuclei, an inter-laboratory reproducibility study of the rat peripheral blood micronucleus assay was performed using flow cytometry. In this experiment, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with the model clastogen cyclophosphamide (CP: 5, 10 or 15mg/kg) by a single oral administration. As controls, rats were treated with physiological saline (solvent) in the same manner as for the model clastogen. Peripheral blood was collected from each rat 48h after the treatment. The blood samples were prepared at the Public Interest Incorporated Foundation, BioSafety Research Center (BSRC) in duplicate using the rat MicroFlow(PLUS) Kit. After fixation, one replicate set of samples was shipped to Litron Laboratories, and each sample was analyzed by flow cytometry at the two laboratories. In addition, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) was determined at the BSRC by microscopic analysis using supravital acridine orange (AO) staining. The reproducibility of micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies analyzed by microscopy and flow cytometry showed good correlation (r(2)=0.84). The frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes analyzed by flow cytometry at the two independent laboratories showed good concordance (r(2)=0.97). The data indicate that the flow cytometric micronucleus analysis method is a good alternative to manual microscopic analysis. Flow cytometry allows groups to readily score 5000 or even 20,000 RETs in a matter of minutes compared to manual analysis. This results in increased reliability of the assay by achieving better statistical power.


PubMed | Yakult Honsha Co., Public Interest Incorporated Foundation and LSI Corporation
Type: | Journal: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis | Year: 2015

Repeated-dose liver, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays that use young adult rats were evaluated in a collaborative study that was organized by the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. A genotoxic hepatocarcinogen quinoline was orally administered to independent groups of five Crl:CD (SD) male rats at doses of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg for 14 days and at doses of 15, 30 and 60mg/kg for 28 days. After treatment, the livers were harvested and hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase treatment. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated dose studies. However, the frequency of micronucleated cells did not increase in the bone marrow, stomach or colon cells, which were not quinoline-induced carcinogenic target organs in the rats. These results indicate that a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats is capable of detecting the genotoxicity of quinoline at the target organ of carcinogenicity. The protocol may also permit the integration of the genotoxic endpoint into general repeated-dose toxicity studies. Furthermore, we elucidated that conducting the micronucleus assay in multiple organs could potentially assess organ specificity.


Shiga A.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation | Narama I.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2015

To characterize the hepatic lesions in Fischer 344 (F344) rats afflicted with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia, the livers of rats with LGL leukemia at various stages were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The morphologic features in the livers of rats afflicted with LGL leukemia were diffuse, uniform-sized, granular, or micronodular lesions consisting of hepatocytes showing centrilobular atrophy and perilobular hypertrophy (CAPH) without fibrosis. With progression in the stage of the LGL leukemia, the severity of the CAPH of hepatocytes increased resulting in fatty change and/or single-cell necrosis, along with compensatory hyperplasia of the hepatocytes, finally resulting in lesions similar to those seen in nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) in the human liver. The CAPH of hepatocytes was a nonspecific tissue adaptation against ischemia or hypoxemia and/or imbalance in blood supply due to disturbance in the portal circulation and hemolytic anemia induced by the leukemia cells. In addition, direct and/or indirect hepatocellular injuries by leukemia cells were considered to be necessary for the formation of human NRH-like lesions. Morphogenetic investigation of the livers of rats afflicted with LGL leukemia may be helpful to clarify the pathogenesis of NRH in the human liver. © Society of Toxicologic Pathology.


Kasamoto S.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation | Masumori S.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation | Hayashi M.,Public Interest Incorporated Foundation
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The rodent micronucleus assay has been most widely and frequently used as a representative in vivo assay system to assess mutagenicity of chemicals, regardless of endpoint of mutagenicity. The micronucleus has been developed to assess induction of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations of target chemical. In this chapter, we describe the standard protocols of the assay using mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood. These methods are basically applicable to other rodents. The methodology of the micronucleus assay is rapidly developing, especially automatic analysis by flow cytometry (see also Chapter 11). Also we have to pay attention to the animal welfare, for example integration into repeat dose toxicity assay, combination of the micronucleus assay and Comet assay, and also omission of concurrent positive control group. Therefore, modification of the standard protocol is necessary for the actual assay on a case-by-case basis. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.


To characterize the hepatic lesions in Fischer 344 (F344) rats afflicted with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia, the livers of rats with LGL leukemia at various stages were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The morphologic features in the livers of rats afflicted with LGL leukemia were diffuse, uniform-sized, granular, or micronodular lesions consisting of hepatocytes showing centrilobular atrophy and perilobular hypertrophy (CAPH) without fibrosis. With progression in the stage of the LGL leukemia, the severity of the CAPH of hepatocytes increased resulting in fatty change and/or single-cell necrosis, along with compensatory hyperplasia of the hepatocytes, finally resulting in lesions similar to those seen in nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) in the human liver. The CAPH of hepatocytes was a nonspecific tissue adaptation against ischemia or hypoxemia and/or imbalance in blood supply due to disturbance in the portal circulation and hemolytic anemia induced by the leukemia cells. In addition, direct and/or indirect hepatocellular injuries by leukemia cells were considered to be necessary for the formation of human NRH-like lesions. Morphogenetic investigation of the livers of rats afflicted with LGL leukemia may be helpful to clarify the pathogenesis of NRH in the human liver.

Loading Public Interest Incorporated Foundation collaborators
Loading Public Interest Incorporated Foundation collaborators