Public Health Solutions Pakistan

Lahore, Pakistan

Public Health Solutions Pakistan

Lahore, Pakistan
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Durrani M.,Rescue 1122 | Waseem H.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan | Bhatti J.A.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan | Bhatti J.A.,Aga Khan University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion | Year: 2012

The study assessed whether traffic safety attitudes and ticket fixing behaviours were associated with the crash history. A total of 4018 male drivers from Lahore city participated in this cross sectional study. Most were aged 18-30 years (58.7%, n = 2362), 71.9% (n = 2887) received a traffic ticket, 66.5% (n = 2672) reported previous traffic ticket fixing and 71.3% (n = 2865) considered crashes as being the will of God. Crash history was reported by 95.4% (n = 3821) of drivers, and 58.2% of them reported being involved in a road traffic crash. The likelihood of reporting a previous crash was higher in those who had received a traffic sign violation ticket [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.40; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.15-1.72], were involved in traffic ticket fixing (aOR = 1.28; 95%CI = 1.07-1.53), and considered crashes as will of God (aOR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.57-2.22). These results suggested the need for improving traffic enforcement monitoring and safety education in Pakistan. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Waseem H.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan | Carenzo L.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Razzak J.,Aga Khan University | Naseer R.,Rescue 1122
International Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods: All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results: Road traffic c ashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion: Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. © 2011 Yee et al; licensee Springer.


Bhatti J.A.,McGill University | Bhatti J.A.,Aga Khan University | Ahmed A.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion | Year: 2014

The World Health Organization recommends identifying a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) within the government to coordinate preventive interventions. As LRSAs in developing countries have rarely been evaluated, this case study describes the performance of the LRSA of Pakistan with respect to the World Bank criteria. The designated LRSA, the National Road Safety Secretariat, was put into operation in 2006 and worked for about two years with World Bank funding. The agency had a stand-alone structure headed by an experienced road safety specialist during the first year only and faced difficulty in recruiting other required experts. The LRSA drafted the first National Road Safety Plan, including strategic review of road safety and existing legislation, articulated multisectorial collaboration nationally and provincially, and collected traffic injury data in some districts. Its progress was halted by its dissolution because of funding problems. Currently, two agencies specialising in traffic enforcement and transport research respectively are fulfilling LRSA functions on an ad-hoc basis. Results suggest that sustainability and consistency of LRSAs in developing countries like Pakistan may only be ensured if they are legally protected, inter-ministerial, have permanent funding and are provided with the required expertise through international cooperation, so they can perform their required functions effectively. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | Association for Social Development, University of Leeds and Public Health Solutions Pakistan
Type: | Journal: Global health action | Year: 2015

Respiratory diseases, namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), account for one-fourth of the patients at the primary health-care (PHC) facilities in Pakistan. Standard care practices to manage these diseases are necessary to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate associated with non-communicable diseases in developing countries.To develop and measure the effectiveness of operational guidelines and implementation materials, with sound scientific evidence, for expanding lung health care, especially asthma and COPD through PHC facilities already strengthened for tuberculosis (TB) care in Pakistan.A cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms (intervention and control), with qualitative and costing study components, is being conducted in 34 clusters; 17 clusters per arm (428 asthma and 306 COPD patients), in three districts in Pakistan from October 2014 to December 2016. The intervention consists of enhanced case management of asthma and COPD patients through strengthening of PHC facilities. The main outcomes to be measured are asthma and COPD control among the registered cases at 6 months. Cluster- and individual-level analyses will be done according to intention to treat. Residual confounding will be addressed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models for asthma and COPD control, respectively. The trial is registered with ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 17409338).Currently, only about 20% of the estimated prevalent asthma and COPD cases are being identified and reported through the respective PHC network. Lung health care and prevention has not been effectively integrated into the core PHC package, although a very well-functioning TB program exists at the PHC level. Inclusion of these diseases in the already existent TB program is expected to increase detection rates and care for asthma and COPD.


Mirza S.,Aga Khan University | Mirza S.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan | Siddiqui A.R.,Aga Khan University | Siddiqui A.R.,King Saud University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Background: Liver inflammation due to HCV infection leads to fibrosis, which is an independent predictor of treatment response to interferon therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients. This relationship has not been studied for liver inflammation on pretreatment liver biopsy and End of Treatment Response (ETR). ALT is a less invasive test than liver biopsy for measuring liver inflammation. Aim of this study was to compare ETR to Interferon α (recombinant Interferon) & Ribavirin in CHC patients having higher and lower grades of liver inflammation and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of pretreatment ALT for grades of liver inflammation.Methods: A retrospective cohort of 876 naïve CHC patients, who completed Interferon α & Ribavirin for 24 weeks, was studied for ETR. Pretreatment grade of inflammation on liver biopsy was taken as the exposure variable. It was classified as high if there was moderate or severe and low if there was minimal or mild. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed. Diagnostic accuracy of pretreatment ALT for liver inflammation grades was determined by computing Area Under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUROC).Results: Of all patients, 672 having diagnostic liver biopsy and ETR available were analyzed. Among them, 103 had high and 569 had low grades of liver inflammation. Mean age was 36.9 (SD 9.1) years, with patients with high grades being older than those with low grades inflammation (p = 0.03). High grades of liver inflammation was associated with ETR (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.18) adjusting for age, Total Leukocyte count (TLC) and pretreatment levels of ALT, irrespective of liver fibrosis. This relation remained significant for 'bridging fibrosis and cirrhosis' and not for 'no' or 'portal fibrosis'. AUROC of pretreatment ALT for males and females was moderately accurate for severe inflammation compared to minimal inflammation and less accurate for high grades compared to low grades.Conclusions: ETR in patients with higher grades of liver inflammation was 17% higher than those with lower grades irrespective of fibrosis and 9% higher for bridging fibrosis and cirrhosis. Pretreatment ALT was moderately accurate for severe inflammation only on liver biopsy in both males and females. © 2012 Mirza et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Humayun Q.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan | Humayun Q.,Aga Khan University | Iqbal R.,Aga Khan University | Azam I.,Aga Khan University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D. Results: The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days (±SD) was 69.5 (±32) for low, 83.5 (±29.7) for moderate and 329 (±115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4 days was 0.60 (p<0.01). Correlation between average score and vitamin D levels was found to be 0.36 (p = 0.01) for short term questionnaire score, 0.43 (p = 0.01) for long term questionnaire score in summers and 0.48 (p = 0.01) in winters. Conclusions: The sunlight exposure measurement questionnaires were valid tools for use in large epidemiological studies to quantify sunlight exposure. © 2012 Humayun et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Anil S.,King Saud University | Anil S.,United Arab Emirates University | Anil S.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2014

Discussing findings of a clinical trial gives an opportunity to the investigator to elaborate the meaning of the findings of the trial. It should consist of the major findings, interpretation of the results in light of the available literature, theory and practice, limitations, generalizability of the findings and its implication, and way forwards for future research. One should avoid repetition of results in the discussion and give critical appraisal of the findings in such a way as to give a true picture of the internal and external validity of the clinical trial.


Anil S.,Public Health Solutions Pakistan | Zawahir M.S.,Ruhuna University | Al-Naggar R.A.,University Technology of MARA
Frontiers of Medicine | Year: 2016

Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are “extremely important to learn.” In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who “agreed” 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44–67.26, P < 0.001) and for “strongly agreed” 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04–159.87, P < 0.001). Considering these findings, the familiarity of medical students with preventive medicine should be increased. The perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine is a strong determinant for the ability to practice it. © 2016, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Ruhuna University, Public Health Solutions Pakistan and University Technology of MARA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Frontiers of medicine | Year: 2016

Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are extremely important to learn. In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who agreed 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for strongly agreed 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering these findings, the familiarity of medical students with preventive medicine should be increased. The perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine is a strong determinant for the ability to practice it.


PubMed | Public Health Solutions Pakistan
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2012

Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan.Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high=17, moderate=18, low=19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D.The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4days (SD) was 69.5 (32) for low, 83.5 (29.7) for moderate and 329 (115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4days was 0.60 (p<0.01). Correlation between average score and vitamin D levels was found to be 0.36 (p=0.01) for short term questionnaire score, 0.43 (p=0.01) for long term questionnaire score in summers and 0.48 (p=0.01) in winters.The sunlight exposure measurement questionnaires were valid tools for use in large epidemiological studies to quantify sunlight exposure.

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