PubMed | National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Public Health Laboratory, DNalysis Maastricht, Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2016
In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection of CT at both anatomic sites has been demonstrated. It is unknown whether anorectal CT may play a role in post-treatment transmission. This study, called FemCure, in women who receive routine treatment (either azithromycin or doxycycline) aims to understand the post-treatment transmission of anorectal CT infections, i.e., from their male sexual partner(s) and from and to the genital region of the same woman. The secondary objective is to evaluate other reasons for CT detection by nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) such as treatment failure, in order to inform guidelines to optimize CT control.A multicentre prospective cohort study (FemCure) is set up in which genital and/or anorectal CT positive women (n=400) will be recruited at three large Dutch STI clinics located in South Limburg, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The women self-collect anorectal and vaginal swabs before treatment, and at the end of weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Samples are tested for presence of CT-DNA (by NAAT), load (by quantitative polymerase chain reaction -PCR), viability (by culture and viability PCR) and CT type (by multilocus sequence typing). Sexual exposure is assessed by online self-administered questionnaires and by testing samples for Y chromosomal DNA. Using logistic regression models, the impact of two key factors (i.e., sexual exposure and alternate anatomic site of infection) on detection of anorectal and genital CT will be assessed.The FemCure study will provide insight in the role of anorectal chlamydia infection in maintaining the CT burden in the context of treatment, and it will provide practical recommendations to reduce avoidable transmission. Implications will improve care strategies that take account of anorectal CT.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02694497 .
PubMed | University of Amsterdam, Ministry of Health Suriname and Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2016
Point-of-care (POC) tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The leucocyte esterase test (LET) can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia among men at STI clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Recruitment of patients took place in 2008-2010 in Suriname and in 2009-2010 in the Netherlands. Urine of patients was examined with the LET. The reference test was a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT).We included 412 patients in Suriname and 645 in the Netherlands. Prevalence of chlamydia in Suriname and the Netherlands was respectively 22.8 and 13.6%. The sensitivity of the LET was 92.6% (95 % CI=85.3-97.0) and 77.3% (95 % CI=67.1-85.5) respectively, the specificity was 38.1% (95 % CI=32.7-43.6%) and 58.1% (95 % CI=53.9-62.3) respectively. The positive predictive value was 30.6% (95 % CI=27.3-36.4) and 22.6% (95 % CI=18.0-27.7) respectively and the negative predictive value was 94.5% (95 % CI=89.1-97.8) and 94.2% (95 % CI=91.1-96.4) respectively. The kappa was respectively 0.179 and 0.176.To diagnose urogenital chlamydia in men the LET performs poorly. It has a high negative but low positive predictive value. If the LET result is negative, chlamydia is accurately excluded, yet a positive result has a low predictive value. Whether the advantages of direct management based on LET outweigh the disadvantages of overtreatment is a subject for further studies.
Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam |
Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Laboratory |
Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
And 7 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2015
Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients with sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods Female patients at high risk for an STI who reported active oral sex and male patients who have sex with men (MSM) were screened for pharyngeal chlamydia RNA using a nucleic acid amplification test. A repeat swab was obtained to evaluate spontaneous clearance in untreated patients with pharyngeal chlamydia. Quantitative chlamydia DNA load was determined by calculating the chlamydia/human cell ratio. Results Pharyngeal chlamydia was detected in 148/ 13 111 (1.1%) MSM and in 160/6915 (2.3%) women. 53% of MSM and 32% of women with pharyngeal chlamydia did not have a concurrent anogenital chlamydia infection. In 16/43 (37%) MSM and in 20/55 (36%) women, the repeat pharyngeal swab was negative (median follow-up 10 days, range 4-58 days). Patients with an initial chlamydial DNA concentration above the median were less likely to clear. Of 23 MSM with pharyngeal chlamydia who had sex with a lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)-positive partner recently or in the past, two were LGV biovar positive (8.7%). Conclusions The pharynx is a reservoir for chlamydia and LGV, and may play a role in ongoing transmission. Although delay in ribosomal RNA decline after resolution of the infection might have led to an underestimation of spontaneous clearance, in high-risk STI clinic patients, testing the pharynx for chlamydia should be considered.
PubMed | Leiden Cytology and Pathology Laboratory, Lawson Health Research Institute, Applied Scientific Research, VU University Amsterdam and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2016
To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of known BV-associated composition profiles and evaluate indicators for BV using three molecular methods.Evaluation of indicators for BV was carried out by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V5-V7 region, a tailor-made 16S rRNA oligonucleotide-based microarray, and a PCR-based profiling technique termed IS-profiling, which is based on fragment variability of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. An inventory of vaginal bacterial species was obtained from 40 females attending a Dutch sexually transmitted infection outpatient clinic, of which 20 diagnosed with BV (Nugent score 7-10), and 20 BV negative (Nugent score 0-3).Analysis of the bacterial communities by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed two clusters in the BV negative women, dominated by either Lactobacillus iners or Lactobacillus crispatus and three distinct clusters in the BV positive women. In the former, there was a virtually complete, negative correlation between L. crispatus and L. iners. BV positive subjects showed cluster profiles that were relatively high in bacterial species diversity and dominated by anaerobic species, including Gardnerella vaginalis, and those belonging to the Families of Lachnospiraceae and Leptotrichiaceae. Accordingly, the Gini-Simpson index of species diversity, and the relative abundance Lactobacillus species appeared consistent indicators for BV. Under the conditions used, only the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing method was suitable to assess species diversity, while all three molecular composition profiling methods were able to indicate Lactobacillus abundance in the vaginal microbiota.An affordable and simple molecular test showing a depletion of the genus Lactobacillus in combination with an increased species diversity of vaginal microbiota could serve as an alternative and practical diagnostic method for the assessment of BV.
Comparison of two Gram stain point-of-care systems for urogenital gonorrhoea among high-risk patients: Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness before and after changing the screening algorithm at an STI clinic in Amsterdam
Bartelsman M.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
Straetemans M.,Royal Tropical Institute |
Vaughan K.,Royal Tropical Institute |
Alba S.,Royal Tropical Institute |
And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2014
Objectives: To compare point-of-care (POC) systems in two different periods: (1) before 2010 when all high-risk patients were offered POC management for urogenital gonorrhoea by Gram stain examination; and (2) after 2010 when only those with symptoms were offered Gram stain examination. Methods: Retrospective comparison of a Gram stain POC system to all high-risk patients (2008-2009) with only those with urogenital symptoms (2010-2011) on diagnostic accuracy, loss to follow-up, presumptively and correctly treated infections and diagnostic costs. Culture was the reference diagnostic method. Results: In men the sensitivity of the Gram stain was 95.9% (95% CI 93.1% to 97.8%) in 2008-2009 and 95.4% (95% CI 93.7% to 96.8%) in 2010-2011, and in women the sensitivity was 32.0% (95% CI 19.5% to 46.7%) and 23.1% (95% CI 16.1% to 31.3%), respectively. In both periods the overall specificity was high (99.9% (95% CI 99.8% to 100%) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.7% to 99.9%), respectively). The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) before and after 2010 were also high: PPV 97.0% (95% CI 94.5% to 98.5%) and 97.7% (95% CI 96.3% to 98.6%), respectively; NPV 99.6% (95% CI 99.4% to 99.7%) and 98.8% (95% CI 98.5% to 99.0%), respectively. There were no differences between the two time periods in loss to follow-up (7.1% vs 7.0%). Offering Gram stains only to symptomatic high-risk patients as opposed to all high-risk patients saved €2.34 per correctly managed consultation (a reduction of 7.7%). Conclusions: The sensitivity of the Gram stain is high in men but low in women. When offered only to high-risk patients with urogenital symptoms, the cost per correctly managed consultation is reduced by 7.7% without a significant difference in accuracy and loss to follow-up.
De Vries H.J.C.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
De Vries H.J.C.,University of Amsterdam |
Schim Van Der Loeff M.F.,University of Amsterdam |
Schim Van Der Loeff M.F.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015
Purpose of review: A state-of-the-art overview of molecular Chlamydia trachomatis typing methods that are used for routine diagnostics and scientific studies. Recent findings: Molecular epidemiology uses high-resolution typing techniques such as multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis, and whole-genome sequencing to identify strains based on their DNA sequence. These data can be used for cluster, network and phylogenetic analyses, and are used to unveil transmission networks, risk groups, and evolutionary pathways. High-resolution typing of C. trachomatis strains is applied to monitor treatment efficacy and re-infections, and to study the recent emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) amongst men who have sex with men in high-income countries. Chlamydia strain typing has clinical relevance in disease management, as LGV needs longer treatment than non-LGV C. trachomatis. It has also led to the discovery of a new variant Chlamydia strain in Sweden, which was not detected by some commercial C. trachomatis diagnostic platforms. Summary: After a brief history and comparison of the various Chlamydia typing methods, the applications of the current techniques are described and future endeavors to extend scientific understanding are formulated. High-resolution typing will likely help to further unravel the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the wide clinical spectrum of chlamydial disease. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Quint K.D.,DDL Diagnostic Laboratory |
Quint K.D.,Leiden University |
Bom R.J.M.,Public Health Laboratory |
Quint W.G.V.,DDL Diagnostic Laboratory |
And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011
Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in western society. Genotype L infections need to be distinguished from non-LGV (genotypes A-K) Ct infections since they require prolonged antibiotic treatment. For this purpose, an in-house developed pmpH based LGV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is used at the Amsterdam STI outpatient clinic. We investigated retrospectively the anal Ct genotype distribution, and the frequency of concomitant genotype infections in MSM infected with LGV and non-LGV Ct infections. To detect concomitant Ct genotype infections, the pmpH LGV PCR and genoTyping Reverse Hybridization Assay (Ct-DT RHA) were used.Methods: A total of 201 Ct positive rectal swabs from MSM were selected, which were previously diagnosed as either LGV (n = 99) or non-LGV Ct infection (n = 102) according to the algorithm of Ct detection by the commercially available Aptima Combo 2 assay followed by an in-house pmpH LGV PCR. The samples were retested with the commercially available Ct-DT RHA, which differentiates between 14 major genotypes and is able to detect concomitant Ct genotypes.Results: Excellent genotyping agreement was observed between the Ct-DT RHA and the pmpH LGV PCR (Kappa = 0.900, 95%CI = 0.845-0.955, McNemar's p = 1.000). A concomitant non-LGV genotype was detected in 6/99 (6.1%) LGV samples. No additional LGV infections were observed with the Ct-DT RHA among the non-LGV Ct group. In the non-LGV group genotype G/Ga (34.3%) was seen most frequent, followed by genotype D/Da (22.5%) and genotype J (13.7%). All LGV infections were caused by genotype L2.Conclusions: Concomitant non-LGV genotypes do not lead to missed LGV proctitis diagnosis. The pmpH LGV PCR displayed excellent agreement with the commercially available Ct-DT genotyping RHA test. The genotypes G/Ga, D/Da and J were the most frequent non-LGV Ct strains in MSM. © 2011 Quint et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Bom R.J.M.,Public Health Laboratory |
van der Helm J.J.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
Schim van der Loeff M.F.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
Schim van der Loeff M.F.,University of Amsterdam |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background: Genovar distributions of Chlamydia trachomatis based on ompA typing differ between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals. We investigated clonal relationships using a high resolution typing method to characterize C. trachomatis types in these two risk groups. Methods: C. trachomatis positive samples were collected at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam between 2008 and 2010 and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Clusters were assigned using minimum spanning trees and these were combined with epidemiological data of the hosts. Results: We typed 526 C. trachomatis positive samples: 270 from MSM and 256 from heterosexuals. Eight clusters, containing 10-128 samples were identified of which 4 consisted of samples from MSM (90%-100%), with genovars D, G, J, and L2b. The other 4 clusters consisted mainly of samples from heterosexuals (87%-100%) with genovars D, E, F, I, and J. Genetic diversity was much lower in the MSM clusters than in heterosexual clusters. Significant differences in number of sexual partners and HIV-serostatus were observed for MSM-associated clusters. Conclusions: C. trachomatis transmission patterns among MSM and heterosexuals were largely distinct. We hypothesize that these differences are due to sexual host behavior, but bacterial factors may play a role as well. © 2013 Bom et al.
de Vries H.J.C.,University of Amsterdam |
de Vries H.J.C.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam |
Reedijk S.H.,University of Amsterdam |
Schallig H.D.F.H.,Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit Royal Tropical Institute
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology | Year: 2015
This review focuses on recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, management, and strategies for the prevention and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by both Old and New World Leishmania species. CL is caused by the vector-borne protozoan parasite Leishmania and is transmitted via infected female sandflies. The disease is endemic in more than 98 countries and an estimated 350 million people are at risk. The overall prevalence is 12 million cases and the annual incidence is 2–2.5 million. The World Health Organization considers CL a severely neglected disease and a category 1 emerging and uncontrolled disease. The management of CL differs from region to region and is primarily based on local experience-based evidence. Most CL patients can be treated with topical treatments, but some Leishmania species can cause mucocutaneous involvement requiring a systemic therapeutic approach. Moreover, Leishmania species can vary in their sensitivity to available therapeutic options. This makes species determination critical for the choice of treatment and the clinical outcome of CL. Identification of the infecting parasite used to be laborious, but now the Leishmania species can be identified relatively easy with new DNA techniques that enable a more rational therapy choice. Current treatment guidelines for CL are based on poorly designed and reported trials. There is a lack of evidence for potentially beneficial treatments, a desperate need for large well-conducted studies, and standardization of future trials. Moreover, intensified research programs to improve vector control, diagnostics, and the therapeutic arsenal to contain further incidence and morbidity are needed. © 2015, The Author(s).
PubMed | National Institute for Public Health and the Environment and Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam
Type: | Journal: Sexually transmitted infections | Year: 2016
Infectious syphilis (syphilis) is diagnosed predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Netherlands and is a strong indicator for sexual risk behaviour. Therefore, an increase in syphilis can be an early indicator of resurgence of other STIs, including HIV. National and worldwide outbreaks of syphilis, as well as potential changes in sexual networks were reason to explore syphilis trends and clusters in more depth.National STI/HIV surveillance data were used, containing epidemiological, behavioural and clinical data from STI clinics. We examined syphilis positivity rates stratified by HIV status and year. Additionally, we performed space-time cluster analysis on municipality level between 2007 and 2015, using SaTScan to evaluate whether or not there was a higher than expected syphilis incidence in a certain area and time period, using the maximum likelihood ratio test statistic.Among HIV-positive MSM, the syphilis positivity rate decreased between 2007 (12.3%) and 2011 (4.5%), followed by an increasing trend (2015: 8.0%). Among HIV-negative MSM, the positivity rate decreased between 2007 (2.8%) and 2011 also (1.4%) and started to increase from 2013 onwards (2015: 1.8%). In addition, we identified three geospatial clusters. The first cluster consisted of MSM sex workers in the South of the Netherlands (July 2009-September 2010, n=10, p<0.001). The second cluster were mostly HIV-positive MSM (58.5%) (Amsterdam; July 2011-December 2015; n=1123, p<0.001), although the proportion of HIV-negative MSM increased over time. The third cluster was large in space (predominantly the city of Rotterdam; April-September 2015, n=72, p=0.014) and were mostly HIV-negative MSM (62.5%).Using SaTScan analysis, we observed several not yet recognised outbreaks and a rapid resurgence of syphilis among known HIV-positive MSM first, but more recently, also among HIV-negative MSM. The three identified clusters revealed locations, periods and specific characteristics of the involved MSM that could be used when developing targeted interventions.