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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam | Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Laboratory | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam | Van Der Loeff M.F.S.,University of Amsterdam | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections

Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients with sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods Female patients at high risk for an STI who reported active oral sex and male patients who have sex with men (MSM) were screened for pharyngeal chlamydia RNA using a nucleic acid amplification test. A repeat swab was obtained to evaluate spontaneous clearance in untreated patients with pharyngeal chlamydia. Quantitative chlamydia DNA load was determined by calculating the chlamydia/human cell ratio. Results Pharyngeal chlamydia was detected in 148/ 13 111 (1.1%) MSM and in 160/6915 (2.3%) women. 53% of MSM and 32% of women with pharyngeal chlamydia did not have a concurrent anogenital chlamydia infection. In 16/43 (37%) MSM and in 20/55 (36%) women, the repeat pharyngeal swab was negative (median follow-up 10 days, range 4-58 days). Patients with an initial chlamydial DNA concentration above the median were less likely to clear. Of 23 MSM with pharyngeal chlamydia who had sex with a lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)-positive partner recently or in the past, two were LGV biovar positive (8.7%). Conclusions The pharynx is a reservoir for chlamydia and LGV, and may play a role in ongoing transmission. Although delay in ribosomal RNA decline after resolution of the infection might have led to an underestimation of spontaneous clearance, in high-risk STI clinic patients, testing the pharynx for chlamydia should be considered. Source

Bartelsman M.,STI Outpatient Clinic | Van Rooijen M.S.,STI Outpatient Clinic | Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Laboratory | Alba S.,Royal Tropical Institute | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections

Objectives To measure the effect of changing the point-of-care (POC) testing algorithm of urogenital chlamydia for all male high-risk patients to those with only symptoms with respect to: diagnostic accuracy, loss to follow-up, correctly managed consultations and costs. Methods Retrospective comparison of the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of Gram-stained urethral smear analysis for the POC management of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Between 2008 and 2009 Gram-stained urethral smear analysis was offered to all men irrespective of symptoms; between 2010 and 2011 only to those with symptoms. The Aptima CT assay was the reference diagnostic test. Results The number of examined Gram-stained smears in the two periods was respectively 7185 (2008-2009 period) and 18 852 (2010-2011 period). The sensitivity of the Gram stain analysis was respectively 83.8% (95% CI 81.2% to 86.1%) and 91.0% (95% CI 89.5% to 92.3%) (p0.001). The specificity was respectively 74.1% (95% CI 73.0% to 75.2%) and 53.1% (95% CI 51.8% to 54.4%) ( p0.001). The positive predictive value was low in both periods, respectively 31.7% (95% CI 29.8% to 33.6%) and 35.6% (95% CI 34.1% to 37.1%) (p=0.002), whereas the negative predictive value was high, respectively 97.0% (95% CI 96.4% to 97.4%) and 95.4% (95% CI 94.6% to 96.1%) (p=0.002). The loss to follow-up rate between 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 was, respectively, 1.8% (95% CI 1.0% to 2.9%) vs 2.3% (95% CI 1.7% to 3.0%) ( p=0.36). There was a small difference in overtreatment, 68.0% (95% CI 66.0% to 69.8%) vs 64.1% (95% CI 62.6% to 65.5%) (p=0.001). The cost per correctly managed consultation was 14.3% lower in the 2010-2011 period (€94.31 vs €80.82). The percentage of delayed treated infections was significantly lower in the 2008-2009 period (10.5%) compared with the 2010-2011 period (22.8%) ( p0.001). Conclusions With a high sensitivity in male high-risk patients, the Gram-stained urethral smear is a useful POC test to detect urogenital C. trachomatis. When offered only to men with urogenital symptoms the specificity decreases but the cost per correctly managed consultation is reduced with 14.3% without a significant difference in loss to follow-up but with a significantly higher rate of delayed treatment. Source

Bom R.J.M.,Public Health Laboratory | van der Helm J.J.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam | Schim van der Loeff M.F.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam | Schim van der Loeff M.F.,University of Amsterdam | And 8 more authors.

Background: Genovar distributions of Chlamydia trachomatis based on ompA typing differ between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals. We investigated clonal relationships using a high resolution typing method to characterize C. trachomatis types in these two risk groups. Methods: C. trachomatis positive samples were collected at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam between 2008 and 2010 and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Clusters were assigned using minimum spanning trees and these were combined with epidemiological data of the hosts. Results: We typed 526 C. trachomatis positive samples: 270 from MSM and 256 from heterosexuals. Eight clusters, containing 10-128 samples were identified of which 4 consisted of samples from MSM (90%-100%), with genovars D, G, J, and L2b. The other 4 clusters consisted mainly of samples from heterosexuals (87%-100%) with genovars D, E, F, I, and J. Genetic diversity was much lower in the MSM clusters than in heterosexual clusters. Significant differences in number of sexual partners and HIV-serostatus were observed for MSM-associated clusters. Conclusions: C. trachomatis transmission patterns among MSM and heterosexuals were largely distinct. We hypothesize that these differences are due to sexual host behavior, but bacterial factors may play a role as well. © 2013 Bom et al. Source

Bartelsman M.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD Amsterdam | Straetemans M.,Royal Tropical Institute | Vaughan K.,Royal Tropical Institute | Alba S.,Royal Tropical Institute | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections

Objectives: To compare point-of-care (POC) systems in two different periods: (1) before 2010 when all high-risk patients were offered POC management for urogenital gonorrhoea by Gram stain examination; and (2) after 2010 when only those with symptoms were offered Gram stain examination. Methods: Retrospective comparison of a Gram stain POC system to all high-risk patients (2008-2009) with only those with urogenital symptoms (2010-2011) on diagnostic accuracy, loss to follow-up, presumptively and correctly treated infections and diagnostic costs. Culture was the reference diagnostic method. Results: In men the sensitivity of the Gram stain was 95.9% (95% CI 93.1% to 97.8%) in 2008-2009 and 95.4% (95% CI 93.7% to 96.8%) in 2010-2011, and in women the sensitivity was 32.0% (95% CI 19.5% to 46.7%) and 23.1% (95% CI 16.1% to 31.3%), respectively. In both periods the overall specificity was high (99.9% (95% CI 99.8% to 100%) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.7% to 99.9%), respectively). The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) before and after 2010 were also high: PPV 97.0% (95% CI 94.5% to 98.5%) and 97.7% (95% CI 96.3% to 98.6%), respectively; NPV 99.6% (95% CI 99.4% to 99.7%) and 98.8% (95% CI 98.5% to 99.0%), respectively. There were no differences between the two time periods in loss to follow-up (7.1% vs 7.0%). Offering Gram stains only to symptomatic high-risk patients as opposed to all high-risk patients saved €2.34 per correctly managed consultation (a reduction of 7.7%). Conclusions: The sensitivity of the Gram stain is high in men but low in women. When offered only to high-risk patients with urogenital symptoms, the cost per correctly managed consultation is reduced by 7.7% without a significant difference in accuracy and loss to follow-up. Source

Van Liere G.A.F.S.,Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health | Van Liere G.A.F.S.,Maastricht University | Van Rooijen M.S.,Public Health Laboratory | Hoebe C.J.P.A.,Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health | And 7 more authors.

Background Both anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) can occur as a rectal-only infection or concurrently with simultaneous urogenital infection with the same pathogen. Characterising the target groups in which rectal-only infections occur may improve the efficacy of screening practices. Methods We analysed data from two Dutch outpatient sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics between 2011 and 2012. We included all men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 9549) and women (n = 11113), ≥18 years, who had been tested for anorectal and urogenital CT and/or NG (either as a result of reporting anal sex/symptoms or via routine universal testing). Factors associated with rectal-only CT and NG infections were assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results In MSM, anorectal CT prevalence was 9.8% (693/7094), anorectal NG prevalence was 4.2% (397/9534). In women this was 9.5% overall (439/4597) and 0.9% (96/10972) respectively. Anorectal CT prevalence among women who were routinely universally tested was 10.4% (20/192), for selective testing this was 9.5% (419/4405) (p = 0.68). Anorectal NG infections were not detected among women who were routinely universally tested (p = 0.19). Among CT or NG positive MSM, rectal-only CT infections were found in 85.9% (595/ 693), for NG this was 85.6% (340/397) respectively. In positive women these figures were 22.1% (97/439)for CT and 20.8% (20/96) for NG, respectively. In MSM, independent factors associated with rectal-only CT were: being a sex worker (OR0.4,CI0.2-1.0), exclusively having sex with men (OR3.4,CI1.7-6.8), and absence of urogenital symptoms (OR0.2, CI0.2-0.4). In women, these factors were: older age (OR2.3, CI1.3-4.0) and non-Western nationality (OR1.8, CI1.0-3.5). Factors associated with rectal-only NG in MSM were: having been warned for STIs by an (ex) partner (OR2.9,CI1.1-7.5), oropharyngeal NG infection (OR2.4,CI1.0-5.3), and absence of urogenital symptoms (OR0.02,CI0.01-0.04), while in women no significant factors were identified. Conclusions The prevalence of anorectal CT and NG was substantial in MSM and prevalence of anorectal CT was also substantial in women. Anorectal infections occurred mostly as rectal-only infections in MSM and mostly concurrent with other infections in women. Given the lack of useful indicators for rectal-only infections, selective screening based on a priori patient characteristics will have low discriminatory power both in relation to MSM and women. © 2015 van Liere et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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