Public Health Research Institute of India

Mysore, India

Public Health Research Institute of India

Mysore, India
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Madhivanan P.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Kumar B.N.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Krupp K.,Public Health Research Institute of India
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to- child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results. Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions. Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India. © 2010 Madhivanan et al.

Adamson P.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Krupp K.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Niranjankumar B.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Freeman A.H.,George Washington University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods. A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results: Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89) of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include sensitization of healthcare workers, targeted health education and outreach, and culturally appropriate community-level interventions. Addressing the needs of these communities will be critical to achieving Millennium Development Goal Five by 2015. © 2012 Adamson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rathod S.D.,University of California at Berkeley | Krupp K.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Klausner J.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Arun A.,Public Health Research Institute of India | And 2 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) have been estimated to affect one-quarter to one-third of sexually active women worldwide, and are often found concurrently. Few studies have examined this relationship longitudinally to better understand the direction and temporality of this association. Methods: Between 2005 and 2006, a cohort of 853 young, sexually active women was followed in Mysore, India; participants were interviewed and tested for BV and TV at baseline, and at 3- and 6-month visit. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate how changes in vaginal flora between consecutive visits-as defined by Nugent diagnostic criteria for BV-were related to the risk of TV infection at the latter visit, adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates. Treatment was offered to women with TV and/or symptomatic BV. Results: After adjustment for covariates, participants with abnormal vaginal flora at 2 consecutive visits had 9 times higher risk of TV (95% CI: 4.1, 20.0) at the latter visit, relative to those with persistently normal flora. An increased risk of TV was also observed for participants whose flora status changed from normal to abnormal (adjusted risk ratio: 7.11, 95% CI: 2.8, 18.2) and from abnormal to normal (adjusted risk ratio: 4.50, 95% CI: 1.7, 11.8). Conclusions: Women experiencing abnormal flora during a 3-month span appear to have significantly increased risk of acquiring TV infection. Women of reproductive age in low-resource settings found to have abnormal vaginal flora should be assessed for TV. Copyright © 2011 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Florida, University of Washington, Florida International University and Public Health Research Institute of India
Type: | Journal: Journal of sexually transmitted diseases | Year: 2015

Objectives. To assess the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections among pregnant women attending mobile antenatal health clinic in rural villages in Mysore Taluk, India. Methods. Between January and September 2009, 487 women from 52 villages participated in this study. Each participant consented to provide a blood sample for HSV-2 and HIV testing and underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results. HSV-2 prevalence was 6.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.4-9.0), and one woman tested positive for HIV. The median age of women was 20 years and 99% of women reported having a single lifetime sex partner. Women whose sex partner traveled away from home had 2.68 (CI: 1.13-6.34) times the odds of being HSV-2 seropositive compared to women whose sex partner did not travel. Having experienced genital lesions was also associated with HSV-2 infection (P value = 0.08). Conclusion. The 6.7% HSV-2 prevalence was similar to results obtained in studies among pregnant women in other parts of India. It appeared that most women in this study contracted HSV-2 from their spouses and few regularly used condoms. This finding highlights the need for public health policies to increase awareness and education about prevention methods among women and men living in rural India.

PubMed | University of Florida and Public Health Research Institute of India
Type: | Journal: Journal of sexually transmitted diseases | Year: 2015

Background. We describe a one-year evaluation study comparing SCIL intervention of mobile provision of integrated ANC/ HIV testing with an enhanced (SCIL+) intervention of community mobilization strategy providing conditional cash transfers (CCT) to womens SHG for identifying and accompanying pregnant women to mobile clinics. Methods. Twenty pairs of villages matched on population, socioeconomic status, access to medical facilities, and distance from Mysore city were divided between SCIL and SCIL+ interventions. The primary study outcome was the proportion of total pregnancies in these villages who received ANC and HIV testing. Results. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 552 pregnant women participated in SCIL or SCIL+ interventions. Among women who were pregnant at the time of intervention delivery, 181 of 418 (43.3%) women pregnant at the time of intervention delivery received ANC in the SCIL arm, while 371 of 512 (72.5%) received ANC in the SCIL+ arm (P < 0.001); 175 (97%) in the SCIL and 366 (98.6%) in the SCIL+ arm consented to HIV testing (P < 0.001). HIV prevalence of 0.6% was detected among SCIL clinic, and 0.9% among attending SCIL+ clinic attendees. Conclusion. Provision of CCT to womens microeconomic SHG appears to significantly increase uptake of ANC/HIV testing services in rural Mysore villages.

Madhivanan P.,Florida International University | Madhivanan P.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Li T.,Florida International University | Srinivas V.,Public Health Research Institute of India | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: Worldwide, 530,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 275,000 die annually. India bears the greatest burden of the disease with 132,000 cases and 74,000 deaths yearly. Widespread uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could reduce incidence and mortality by two-thirds. This study explored obstacles and facilitators of parental acceptability of HPV vaccine. Methods: In 2010, questionnaires were sent home with a random sample of 800 girls attending 12 schools in Mysore city to be completed by a parent. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equation to account for potential clustering by school. Results: Of the 797 completed surveys; 71% reported willingness to accept HPV vaccine for their daughters. The adjusted odds of acceptance was higher among participants who received recommendation from their parents, perceived cervical cancer as a serious disease, believed that HPV vaccine was safe, or felt that vaccination was a good way to protect against cervical cancer. Parents who had concerns about vaccine side-effects or thought that it would cause pain had lower odds of acceptance. Conclusion: Future promotion of vaccine should emphasize safety of immunization and involve promotion to the extended family, so that they actively recommend immunization of young adolescent girls. © 2014 .

Madhivanan P.,Florida International University | Madhivanan P.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Krupp K.,Public Health Research Institute of India | Reingold A.,University of California at Berkeley
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. © 2011 APJPH.

Mukherjee S.,Florida International University | Pierre-Victor D.,Florida International University | Bahelah R.,Florida International University | Madhivanan P.,Florida International University | Madhivanan P.,Public Health Research Institute of India
Women and Health | Year: 2014

Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high—some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed. ©, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | Florida International University and Public Health Research Institute of India
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of infection and public health | Year: 2015

More than half of the over 18 million incompletely vaccinated children worldwide in 2011 lived in India (32%), Nigeria (14%) and Indonesia (7%). Overall immunization coverage in India was 61% in 2009. Few studies have explored the role of parental attitudes in childrens vaccination.To explore the correlates of completion of routine vaccination among children in Mysore City, India.A two-stage probability sample of 800 girls aged 11-15 years was selected from 12 schools in Mysore to take home questionnaires to be completed by their parents. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes and practices relevant to vaccination. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with completion of routine vaccination.Of the 797 (99.6%) parents who completed questionnaires, 29.9% reported completing all routine vaccinations for their children. Parents who had obtained optional vaccinations for their children (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.09-6.74), who believed in vaccines effectiveness (2.50; 1.19-5.28) and who asked doctors or nurses about vaccination (2.07; 1.10-3.90) were significantly more likely to report complete vaccination, after controlling for all other factors. Belief that the disease was more protective than vaccination was independently associated with lower likelihood of vaccination series completion (0.71; 0.52-0.96). No other attitudinal or socio-demographic factors were associated with vaccine completion.Interest and belief in vaccine effectiveness are important facilitators motivating parents to obtain full vaccination for their children in India.

PubMed | Florida International University and Public Health Research Institute of India
Type: | Journal: Midwifery | Year: 2016

India accounts for almost a third of the global deaths among newborns on their first day of birth. In spite of making significant progress in increasing institutional births, large numbers of rural Indian women are still electing to give birth at home. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with place of birth among women who had recently given birth in rural Mysore, India.Between January 2009 and 2011, 1675 rural pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Mysore District completed interviewer-administered questionnaires on maternity care services. Ethical approval of the original study was obtained from the Institutional Review Boards of Vikram Hospital and Florida International University. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with place of birth among the 1654 (99%) women that were successfully followed up after childbirth.The median age of the women was 20 years; the majority were educated (87%), low-income (52%), and multiparous (56%). The prevalence of home births was low (4%). Half of the women giving birth at home did not adequately plan for transportation (55%), finances (48%), or birthing with a skilled provider (55%). Multiparous women had greater odds of giving birth at home compared to public (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=7.83, p<0.001) and private institutions (AOR=7.05, p<0.001). Women attending 4 antenatal consultations had greater odds of giving birth at public (AOR=2.53, p=0.036) and private institutions (AOR=3.58, p=0.010). Those with higher scores of birth preparedness also had greater odds of giving birth at public (AOR=2.53, p<0.001) and private institutions (AOR=3.00, p<0.001).As a means to reduce newborn mortality, maternal health interventions in India and similar populations should focus on increasing birth preparedness and institutional births among rural women, particularly among those from lower socio-economic status.

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