Valencia de Alcántara, Spain
Valencia de Alcántara, Spain

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Coscolla C.,Center for Public Health Research | Yahyaoui A.,Ligair Surveillance Of La Qualite Of Lair En Region Center | Colin P.,Ligair Surveillance Of La Qualite Of Lair En Region Center | Robin C.,Ligair Surveillance Of La Qualite Of Lair En Region Center | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

This work presents first data on the particle size distributions of current-used pesticides in the atmosphere. Ambient air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Centre Region (France). Most pesticides were accumulated in the fine (0.1-1μm) particle size fraction such as cyprodinil, pendimethalin, fenpropidin, fenpropimorph and spiroxamine. Other pesticides such as acetochlor and metolachlor presented a bimodal distribution with maximum concentrations in the ultrafine (0.03-0.1μm)-coarse (1-10μm) and in the ultrafine-fine size ranges, respectively. No pesticides were detected in the size fraction 7gt;10μm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Rubert J.,University of Valencia | Rubert J.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Leon N.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Leon N.,Food Safety Res Area Foundation For The Promotion Of Health | And 9 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Boix C.,Jaume I University | Ibanez M.,Jaume I University | Sancho J.V.,Jaume I University | Leon N.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Veterinarian and human pharmaceuticals may be intentionally added to animal feed to enhance animal production. Monitoring these substances is necessary for protecting the consumers. In this work, a screening method covering 116 human and veterinary drugs has been developed and validated in five types of animal feed at 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1. After a simple extraction and dilution, the samples were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Nearly all compounds tested were detected at 0.02 mg kg-1, based on the presence of the accurate-mass (de)protonated molecule. However, the identification using a second accurate-mass ion was more problematic at this level. Finally, the procedure was applied to 22 feed samples, where trimethoprim, robenidine, or α- and β-nandrolone were detected and identified. The potential applicability of the method to quantitative analysis of the compounds detected in the samples was also evaluated. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lopez A.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Lopez A.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Yusa V.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Yusa V.,University of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2016

A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m-3. Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Pardo O.,Center for Public Health Research | Pardo O.,University of Valencia | Beser M.I.,Center for Public Health Research | Beser M.I.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The study was carried out to estimate the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Region of Valencia (Spain) in order to evaluate the resultant risk. The PBDE levels in fish and seafood (a total of 206 samples) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in fish and seafood marketed in the Region of Valencia over the period 2007-2012 and data of the first Valencian Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. Two scenarios were assumed for left-censored results: the lower-bound (LB) scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification (LOQ)) were set to zero and the upper-bound (UB) scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the LOQ and two approaches (deterministic and probabilistic) were compared. The mean PBDE concentration in fish and seafood from Valencian markets was between 0.97 and 3.87ngg-1 w.w. and was similar to that reported recently by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the analysed congeners, BDE-47 showed the highest levels and salmon, mackerel and swordfish were the most contaminated species. The average estimated daily intake of the sum of PBDEs (upper bound scenario; probabilistic approach) for adults and children were 0.137ngkg-1 body weight (b.w.) day and 0.180ngkgb.w.-1d-1, respectively. In relation to risk analysis, calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the BDE-47, -99 and -153 congeners for children and do not indicate a health concern with respect to current dietary exposure in the Valencian Region and only 0.05% of the adult population and a 0.1% of children could be in risk derived by BDE-99 intake through fish. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Leon N.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Leon N.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Pastor A.,University of Valencia | Yusa V.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2016

A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 77 banned veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, ergot alkaloids and plant toxins, and a post-target screening for 425 substances including pesticides and environmental contaminants in feed were developed using a QuEChERS-based extraction and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The quantitative method was validated after previous statistical optimisation of the main parameters governing ionisation, and presented recoveries ranging, in general, from 80 to 120%, with a precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) lower than 20%. The full-scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50000 FWHM and a mass accuracy lower than 5 ppm. The method LOQ was lower than 12.5 μg kg-1 for the majority of the veterinary drugs and plant toxins and 20 μg kg-1 for ergot alkaloids. For post-target screening a customised theoretical database including the exact mass, the polarity of acquisition and the expected adducts was built and used for post-run retrospective screening. The analytical strategy was applied to 32 feed samples collected from farms of the Valencia Region (Spain). Florfenicol, zearalenone and atropine were identified and quantified at concentrations around 10 μg kg-1. In the post-target screening of the real samples, Sulfadiazine, Thrimetoprin and Pirimiphosmethyl were tentatively identified. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yusa V.,Foundation for the Promotion of the Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Yusa V.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Yusa V.,University of Valencia | Millet M.,CNRS The Institute of Chemistry and Processes for Energy, Environment and Health | And 4 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2015

Biomonitoring of both currently-used and banned-persistent pesticides is a very useful tool for assessing human exposure to these chemicals. In this review, we present current approaches and recent advances in the analytical methods for determining the biomarkers of exposure to pesticides in the most commonly used specimens, such as blood, urine, and breast milk, and in emerging non-invasive matrices such as hair and meconium. We critically discuss the main applications for sample treatment, and the instrumental techniques currently used to determine the most relevant pesticide biomarkers. We finally look at the future trends in this field. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Yusa V.,Foundation for the Promotion of the Health | Yusa V.,University of Valencia | Yusa V.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Coscolla C.,Foundation for the Promotion of the Health | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas+particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01pgm-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Yusa V.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Yusa V.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Yusa V.,University of Valencia | Millet M.,CNRS The Institute of Chemistry and Processes for Energy, Environment and Health | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Biomonitoring has been used in many types of investigations, including national programmes and epidemiological studies, to explore the occurrence of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the general population or relevant groups. This review discusses recent studies that measure levels of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in non-invasive human specimens such as urine, breast milk, meconium and hair. Specific and non-specific metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides have been widely investigated in urine, where some of the suitable biomarkers present rates of detection higher than 80%, which stand for an ongoing chronic exposure to traces of these chemicals. Hair is a promising emerging matrix, but some issues on its suitability and the biological relevance needs further research. Breast milk was used in research investigations focused mainly on legacy pesticides, which provide useful information about time trends. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Food Safety Research Area, University of Valencia and Public Health Laboratory of Valencia
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

This study was carried out to determine current levels of nitrate in vegetables marketed in the Region of Valencia (Spain) and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. A total of 533 samples of seven vegetable species were studied. Nitrate levels were derived from the Valencia Region monitoring programme carried out from 2009 to 2013 and food consumption levels were taken from the first Valencia Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. The exposure was estimated using a probabilistic approach and two scenarios were assumed for left-censored data: the lower-bound scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification) were set to zero and the upper-bound scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the limit of quantification value. The exposure of the Valencia consumers to nitrate through the consumption of vegetable products appears to be relatively low. In the adult population (16-95 years) the P99.9 was 3.13mgkg

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