Lowther S.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Leano F.,Health Public Health Laboratory |
Jawahir S.,Health Public Health Laboratory
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2011
Approximately 1.4 million Salmonella infections and 400 deaths occur annually in the United States. Approximately 6% of human Salmonella cases are thought to be associated with reptiles; Salmonella enterica subspecies IV is primarily reptile-associated. During 1-4 December, 2009, three isolates of Salmonella IV 6,7:z4,z24:- with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identified through Minnesota Department of Health laboratory-based surveillance. None of the three patients associated with the isolates reported reptile contact; however, all had attended the same potluck dinner. Dinner attendees were asked questions regarding illness history, foods they prepared for and consumed at the event, and pet ownership. Cases were defined as illness in a person who had eaten potluck food and subsequently experienced fever and diarrhoea (three or more loose stools in 24h) or laboratory-confirmed infection with Salmonella IV matching the outbreak PFGE subtype. Nineteen days after the event, environmental samples were collected from a food preparer's house where two pet bearded dragons were kept. Sixty-six of 73 potluck food consumers were interviewed; 19 cases were identified; 18 persons reported illness but did not meet the case definition. Median incubation period was 19h (range: 3-26h). Median duration of illness was 5days (range: 1-11days). Consumption of gravy, prepared by the bearded dragons' asymptomatic owner, was associated with illness (16/32 exposed versus 1/12 unexposed; risk ratio: 6.0; exact P=0.02). Salmonella Labadi was recovered from 10 samples, including from one bearded dragon, the bathroom door knob and sink drain, and the kitchen sink drain. The outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella subspecies IV was isolated from vacuum-cleaner bag contents. This foodborne outbreak probably resulted from environmental contamination from bearded dragons. Reptiles pose a community threat when food for public consumption is prepared in households with reptiles. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Khoury N.Z.,Health Public Health Laboratory |
Binnicker M.J.,Mayo Medical School |
Wengenack N.L.,Mayo Medical School |
Aksamit T.R.,Mayo Medical School |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective: Determine the performance of an interferon-γ release assay in a health care occupational surveillance program. Methods: From January 11, 2005, through January 31, 2006, all new employees (n = 652) undergoing standard, preemployment evaluation at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota were evaluated for tuberculosis using a standard process of symptom screening combined with tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G). Results: Comparing the results of QFT-G directly to TST, QFTG showed an overall agreement of 92.5%. Conclusions: False-positive TST were themost significant issue affecting agreement, and in a low-tuberculosis prevalence population, the need for an effective strategy offering low falsepositive results may be best met by combining the TST with QFT-G. Copyright © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.