Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem

Prague, Czech Republic

Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem

Prague, Czech Republic
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Drahota P.,Charles University | Raus K.,Charles University | Rychlikova E.,Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem | Rohovec J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2017

Historical mining activities in the village of Kaňk (in the northern part of the Kutná Hora ore district, Czech Republic) produced large amounts of mine wastes which contain significant amounts of metal(loid) contaminants such as As, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Given the proximity of residential communities to these mining residues, we investigated samples of mine waste (n = 5), urban soil (n = 6), and road dust (n = 5) with a special focus on the solid speciation of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn using a combination of methods (XRD, SEM/EDS, oxalate extractions), as well as on in vitro bioaccessibility in simulated gastric and lung fluids to assess the potential exposure risks for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that As is the most important contaminant in the mine wastes (~1.15 wt%), urban soils (~2900 mg/kg) and road dusts (~440 mg/kg). Bioaccessible fractions of As were quite low (4–13%) in both the simulated gastric and lung fluids, while the bioaccessibility of metals ranged between <0.01% (Pb) and 68% (Zn). The bioaccessibilities of the metal(loid)s were dependent on the mineralogy and different adsorption properties of the metal(loid)s. Based on our results, a potential health risk, especially for children, was recognized from the ingestion of mine waste materials and highly contaminated urban soil. Based on the risk assessment, arsenic was found to be the element posing the greatest risk. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Crous P.W.,University of Pretoria | Wingfield M.J.,University of Pretoria | Richardson D.M.,Stellenbosch University | And 88 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2016

Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula), Ochroconis dracaenae (on Dracaena reflexa), Rasamsonia columbiensis (air of a hotel conference room), Paecilomyces tabacinus (on Nicotiana tabacum), Toxicocladosporium hominis (from human broncoalveolar lavage fluid), Nothophoma macrospora (from respiratory secretion of a patient with pneumonia), and Penidiellopsis radicularis (incl. Penidiellopsis gen. nov.) from a human nail. Novel taxa described from Malaysia include Prosopidicola albizziae (on Albizzia falcataria), Proxipyricularia asari (on Asarum sp.), Diaporthe passifloricola (on Passiflora foetida), Paramycoleptodiscus albizziae (incl. Paramycoleptodiscus gen. nov.) on Albizzia falcataria, and Malaysiasca phaii (incl. Malaysiasca gen. nov.) on Phaius reflexipetalus. Two species are newly described from human patients in the Czech Republic, namely Microascus longicollis (from toenails of patient with suspected onychomycosis), and Chrysosporium echinulatum (from sole skin of patient). Furthermore, Alternaria quercicola is described on leaves of Quercus brantii (Iran), Stemphylium beticola on leaves of Beta vulgaris (The Netherlands), Scleroderma capeverdeanum on soil (Cape Verde Islands), Scleroderma dunensis on soil, and Blastobotrys meliponae from bee honey (Brazil), Ganoderma mbrekobenum on angiosperms (Ghana), Geoglossum raitviirii and Entoloma krutiсianum on soil (Russia), Priceomyces vitoshaensis on Pterostichus melas (Carabidae) (Bulgaria) is the only one for which the family is listed, Ganoderma ecuadoriense on decaying wood (Ecuador), Thyrostroma cornicola on Cornus officinalis (Korea), Cercophora vinosa on decorticated branch of Salix sp. (France), Coprinus pinetorum, Coprinus littoralis and Xerocomellus poederi on soil (Spain). Two new genera from Colombia include Helminthosporiella and Uwemyces on leaves of Elaeis oleifera. Two species are described from India, namely Russula intervenosa (ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta), and Crinipellis odorata (on bark of Mytragyna parviflora). Novelties from Thailand include Cyphellophora gamsii (on leaf litter), Pisolithus aureosericeus and Corynascus citrinus (on soil). Two species are newly described from Citrus in Italy, namely Dendryphiella paravinosa on Citrus sinensis, and Ramularia citricola on Citrus floridana. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS nrDNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. © 2015-2016 Naturalis Biodiversity Center & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


Lyskova P.,Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem | Hubka V.,Charles University | Hubka V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Petricakova A.,Kojeticka | And 5 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2015

Trichophyton bullosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte from the Arthroderma benhamiae complex with a poorly known distribution. In this study, we report a case of dermatophytosis caused by T. bullosum in a 6-year-old male horse who had a skin lesion located in a saddle area. The infection spread rapidly to the upper chest and to both sides of the trunk. The dermatophyte was isolated in culture and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS rDNA). To date, this is the first verified case of animal infection due to T. bullosum in Europe following the 2012 report of human infection in France. We hypothesize that this species can be relatively common in horses and donkeys, but it is confused with other zoophilic species responsible for infections with similar clinical manifestations, and when isolated in culture, it is misidentified as the phenotypically similar T. verrucosum. Previous cases of dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes in horses and donkeys were reviewed together with human infections transmitted from these animals. This summary estimates possible distribution width of T. bullosum. The taxonomy of T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes is extremely difficult due to lack of original material and poor morphology of species. Molecular genetic methods are necessary to verify the identification of these fungi. ITS1 or ITS2 region of rDNA alone is sufficient for correct identification. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tyll T.,Charles University | Lyskova P.,Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem | Lyskova P.,Palacky University | Hubka V.,Charles University | And 8 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2016

A case report of cutaneous mucormycosis and obstacles to early diagnosis is presented. A 38-year-old male was involved in a car accident that led to amputation of both lower limbs. Subsequently, he developed fungal wound infection of the left lower limb stump. The infection was detected very early, although the diagnosis was difficult because only a small area was affected and histopathological examination was initially negative. The infection was proven by microscopy, culture and histopathology. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region gene (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA) as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Liposomal amphotericin B and surgery were successful in management of the disease. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Dostal M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Pastorkova A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Rychlik S.,Czech Hydrometeorological Institute | Rychlikova E.,Public Health Institute in Usti Nad Labem | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2013

Background: To confirm or refute the hypothesis that the morbidity of children (since birth to age 5) born and living in the heavily polluted (PM§ssub§10§esub§, benzo[a]pyrene) eastern part of Ostrava, Czech Republic, was higher than the morbidity of children living in other parts of the city. Methods. Ten pediatricians in 5 districts of Ostrava abstracted the medical records of 1878 children born in 2001-2004 to list all illnesses of each child in ICD-10 codes. The children were divided into four groups according to their residence at birth and thereafter. Most of the children in the eastern area were living in the city district Radvanice and Bartovice. Results: We report on the incidence of acute illnesses in 1535 children of Czech ethnicity in the first 5 years of life. The most frequent acute illnesses (over 45% of all diagnoses) were upper respiratory infections (URI: J00-J02, J06). In the first year of life, the incidence of URI in 183 children in the eastern area - 372 illnesses/100 children/year - was more than twice as high as in the other 3 areas with a total number of 1352 children. From birth to the age of 5 years, the incidences of pneumonia, tonsillitis, viral infections (ICD-10 code B34) and intestinal infectious diseases were also several times higher in children living in the eastern part of Ostrava. The lowest morbidity was found in children living in the less polluted western part of the city. Conclusions: The children born and living in the eastern part of the city of Ostrava had from birth through 5 years significantly higher incidence rates of acute illnesses than children in other parts of Ostrava. They also had a higher prevalence of wheezing, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. © 2013 Dostal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Technical University of Denmark, Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit, Charles University and Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical mycology | Year: 2014

The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of -tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A.carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on -tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals.


PubMed | Military University Hospital Prague, Palacky University, Charles University and Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Mycopathologia | Year: 2015

A case report of cutaneous mucormycosis and obstacles to early diagnosis is presented. A 38-year-old male was involved in a car accident that led to amputation of both lower limbs. Subsequently, he developed fungal wound infection of the left lower limb stump. The infection was detected very early, although the diagnosis was difficult because only a small area was affected and histopathological examination was initially negative. The infection was proven by microscopy, culture and histopathology. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region gene (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA) as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Liposomal amphotericin B and surgery were successful in management of the disease.


PubMed | Palacky University, Charles University, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem
Type: | Journal: Mycopathologia | Year: 2016

We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria in a 61-year-old heart transplant recipient with multiple skin lesions and pulmonary infiltrates. The infection spread via the haematogenous route from the primary cutaneous lesions into the lungs. The diagnosis was based on the histopathological examination, direct microscopy, skin lesion cultures and detection of Alternaria DNA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using molecular methods. The treatment consisted of a combination of surgical excision and systemic antifungal therapy. Voriconazole was the first agent used but had a weak effect. Posaconazole was subsequently used to achieve a successful response. The isolate was identified as A. infectoria by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region and the partial -tubulin gene.


PubMed | Kojeticka 1021, Public Health Institute in Ostrava, Charles University and Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Mycopathologia | Year: 2015

Trichophyton bullosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte from the Arthroderma benhamiae complex with a poorly known distribution. In this study, we report a case of dermatophytosis caused by T. bullosum in a 6-year-old male horse who had a skin lesion located in a saddle area. The infection spread rapidly to the upper chest and to both sides of the trunk. The dermatophyte was isolated in culture and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS rDNA). To date, this is the first verified case of animal infection due to T. bullosum in Europe following the 2012 report of human infection in France. We hypothesize that this species can be relatively common in horses and donkeys, but it is confused with other zoophilic species responsible for infections with similar clinical manifestations, and when isolated in culture, it is misidentified as the phenotypically similar T. verrucosum. Previous cases of dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes in horses and donkeys were reviewed together with human infections transmitted from these animals. This summary estimates possible distribution width of T. bullosum. The taxonomy of T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes is extremely difficult due to lack of original material and poor morphology of species. Molecular genetic methods are necessary to verify the identification of these fungi. ITS1 or ITS2 region of rDNA alone is sufficient for correct identification.

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