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Bartsch S.M.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Bartsch S.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Lee B.Y.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation. © 2014 Landes Bioscience. Source


Lee B.Y.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Song Y.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Mcglone S.M.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Bailey R.R.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause severe infections in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Routine periodic testing of haemodialysis patients and attempting to decolonize those who test positive may be a strategy to prevent MRSA infections. The economic value of such a strategy has not yet been estimated. We constructed a Markov computer simulation model to evaluate the economic value of employing routine testing (agar-based or PCR) at different MRSA prevalence, spontaneous clearance, costs of decolonization and decolonization success rates, performed every 3, 6 or 12 months. The model showed periodic MRSA surveillance with either test to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ≤$50000/quality-adjusted life-year) for all conditions tested. Agar surveillance was dominant (i.e. less costly and more effective) at an MRSA prevalence ≥10% and a decolonization success rate ≥25% for all decolonization treatment costs tested with no spontaneous clearance. PCR surveillance was dominant when the MRSA prevalence was ≥20% and decolonization success rate was ≥75% with no spontaneous clearance. Routine periodic testing and decolonization of haemodialysis patients for MRSA may be a cost-effective strategy over a wide range of MRSA prevalences, decolonization success rates, and testing intervals. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Peterson J.K.,Princeton University | Bartsch S.M.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Lee B.Y.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Dobson A.P.,Princeton University
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the most important neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Latin America, infecting an estimated 5.7 million people in the 21 countries where it is endemic. It is one of the NTDs targeted for control and elimination by the 2020 London Declaration goals, with the first goal being to interrupt intra-domiciliary vector-borne T. cruzi transmission. A key question in domestic T. cruzi transmission is the role that synanthropic animals play in T. cruzi transmission to humans. Here, we ask, (1) do synanthropic animals need to be targeted in Chagas disease prevention policies?, and (2) how does the presence of animals affect the efficacy of vector control? Methods: We developed a simple mathematical model to simulate domestic vector-borne T. cruzi transmission and to specifically examine the interaction between the presence of synanthropic animals and effects of vector control. We used the model to explore how the interactions between triatomine bugs, humans and animals impact the number and proportion of T. cruzi-infected bugs and humans. We then examined how T. cruzi dynamics change when control measures targeting vector abundance are introduced into the system. Results: We found that the presence of synanthropic animals slows the speed of T. cruzi transmission to humans, and increases the sensitivity of T. cruzi transmission dynamics to vector control measures at comparable triatomine carrying capacities. However, T. cruzi transmission is amplified when triatomine carrying capacity increases with the abundance of syntathoropic hosts. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in domestic T. cruzi transmission scenarios where no vector control measures are in place, a reduction in synanthropic animals may slow T. cruzi transmission to humans, but it would not completely eliminate transmission. To reach the 2020 goal of interrupting intra-domiciliary T. cruzi transmission, it is critical to target vector populations. Additionally, where vector control measures are in place, synanthropic animals may be beneficial. © 2015 Peterson et al. Source


Bartsch S.M.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Umscheid C.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Nachamkin I.,University of Pennsylvania | Hamilton K.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is essential to effectively managing patients and preventing transmission. Despite the availability of several diagnostic tests, the optimal strategy is debatable and their economic values are unknown. We modified our previously existing C.difficile simulation model to determine the economic value of different CDI diagnostic approaches from the hospital perspective. We evaluated four diagnostic methods for a patient suspected of having CDI: 1) toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay, 2) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen/toxin AB combined in one test, 3) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), and 4) GDH antigen/toxin AB combination test with NAAT confirmation of indeterminate results. Sensitivity analysis varied the proportion of those tested with clinically significant diarrhoea, the probability of CDI, NAAT cost and CDI treatment delay resulting from a false-negative test, length of stay and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT approach leads to the timeliest treatment with the fewest unnecessary treatments given, resulted in the best bed management and generated the lowest cost. The NAAT-alone approach also leads to timely treatment. The GDH/toxin AB diagnostic (without NAAT confirmation) approach resulted in a large number of delayed treatments, but results in the fewest secondary colonisations. Results were robust to the sensitivity analysis. Choosing the right diagnostic approach is a matter of cost and test accuracy. GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT diagnosis led to the timeliest treatment and was the least costly. © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Bartsch S.M.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR | Umscheid C.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Nachamkin I.,University of Pennsylvania | Hamilton K.,University of Pennsylvania | Lee B.Y.,Public Health Computational and Operations Research PHICOR
Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is essential to effectively managing patients and preventing transmission. Despite the availability of several diagnostic tests, the optimal strategy is debatable and their economic values are unknown. We modified our previously existing C. difficile simulation model to determine the economic value of different CDI diagnostic approaches from the hospital perspective. We evaluated four diagnostic methods for a patient suspected of having CDI: 1) toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay, 2) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen/toxin AB combined in one test, 3) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), and 4) GDH antigen/toxin AB combination test with NAAT confirmation of indeterminate results. Sensitivity analysis varied the proportion of those tested with clinically significant diarrhoea, the probability of CDI, NAAT cost and CDI treatment delay resulting from a false-negative test, length of stay and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT approach leads to the timeliest treatment with the fewest unnecessary treatments given, resulted in the best bed management and generated the lowest cost. The NAAT-alone approach also leads to timely treatment. The GDH/toxin AB diagnostic (without NAAT confirmation) approach resulted in a large number of delayed treatments, but results in the fewest secondary colonisations. Results were robust to the sensitivity analysis. Choosing the right diagnostic approach is a matter of cost and test accuracy. GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT diagnosis led to the timeliest treatment and was the least costly. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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