Public Health Research Center

Valencia, Spain

Public Health Research Center

Valencia, Spain
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Price A.E.,Furman University | Laditka S.B.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Colabianchi N.,Public Health Research Center
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods compared themes by gender and race/ethnicity groups. Most participants perceived cognitive decline as a severe threat, and they were primarily concerned about losing their independence. Most reported feeling susceptible to cognitive decline. Although most recognized the link between PA and CH, several White men said the association was not clear. Participants recommended a wide range of PA amounts needed to achieve CH benefits. Many suggested that evidence of PA benefits for CH would enhance message credibility. Participants suggested messages be paired with social support to increase PA. Results suggest a need for evidence-based, credible communication promoting PA and CH. © by SOPHE 2011.

Marin S.,Public Health Research Center | Villalba P.,Public Health Research Center | Diaz-Ferrero J.,Ramon Llull University | Font G.,University of Valencia | Yusa V.,Public Health Research Center
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

During 2006-2008, a monitoring program was conducted on 29 target compounds, including PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, comprising 150 randomly collected individual food samples marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, grouped into 8 categories (vegetables, cereals, fats and oils, eggs, milk and dairy products, fish products, meat and meat products and fish oil). For PCDD/Fs, the highest frequency of detection corresponds to 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF; and PCBs 118, 105 and 156 were the more frequent dl-PCBs. The food groups presenting higher contamination, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs), were fish oil (6.38pgWHO-TEQg-1fat), fish (1.21pgWHO-TEQg-1w.w.) and milk and dairy products (0.90pgWHO-TEQg-1fat). Of all analysed samples, only two fish oils presented levels higher than the EU limits for total WHO-TEQ. The average PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs intakes were estimated as 2.86pgWHO-TEQkg-1b.w.d-1 and 4.58pgWHO-TEQkg-1b.w.d-1, for adults and children, respectively, using the deterministic method for chronic exposure. The main contributors to total intake for adults were fish (59%), milk and dairy products (19%), and fat and oils (9%). The average daily intake for adults (2.86pgWHO-TEQkg-1b.w.d-1) is within range of TDI recommended by the WHO (1-4pgWHO-TEQkg-1b.w.d-1), and slightly above the TWI and PTMI adopted by SCF and JECFA respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Coscolla C.,Public Health Research Center | Colin P.,Ligair Surveillance Of La Qualite Of Lair En Region Center | Yahyaoui A.,Ligair Surveillance Of La Qualite Of Lair En Region Center | Petrique O.,Ligair Surveillance Of La Qualite Of Lair En Region Center | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15ngm-3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature.The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Soto J.B.,Public Health Research Center | Ruiz M.-J.,University of Valencia | Manyes L.,University of Valencia | Juan-Garcia A.,University of Valencia
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

The purposes of this review are to study potential biomarkers of exposure for ochratoxin A (OTA) in biological fluids (blood, urine and breast milk) for the period 2005–14, calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OTA by using database consumption for the Spanish population, and, finally, to correlate OTA levels detected in blood and EDI values calculated from food products. The values of OTA detected in potential biomarkers of exposure for blood, breast milk and urine ranged from 0.15 to 18.0, from 0.002 to 13.1, and from 0.013 to 0.2 ng ml–1, respectively. The calculated EDI for OTA in plasma ranged from 0.15 to 26 ng kg–1 bw day–1, higher than that obtained in urine (0.017–0.4 ng kg–1 bw day–1). All these values are correlated with the range of EDI for OTA calculated from food products: 0.0001–25.2 ng kg–1 bw day–1. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Bellver Soto J.,Public Health Research Center | Fernandez-Franzon M.,University of Valencia | Ruiz M.-J.,University of Valencia | Juan-Garcia A.,University of Valencia
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The main filamentous fungi producers of mycotoxins are Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Fusarium spp. Their effect can provoke a broad range of toxic properties including carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicities. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the risk assessment of OTA in alcoholic drinks (beer and wine) by compiling the results obtained from studies and reviews related to the presence of OTA in these two drinks from southern European countries in the period 2005-2013 and comparing those results with the legislation available in the European Union. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Hart E.,Public Health Research Center | Coscolla C.,Public Health Research Center | Pastor A.,University of Valencia | Yusa V.,Public Health Research Center
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Better knowledge of the occurrence of pesticides in the inhalable fraction of particulate matter (PM10) could be very useful for future exposure assessment in individuals of the general public. The present work studies the spatial and temporal distribution of the occurrence of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in PM10. Ambient air samples were collected from January through December 2010 at one remote, one urban and three rural sites in Valencia Region (Spain) and analyzed for 42 CUPs using a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) approach. Overall, 24 pesticides were detected in the PM10 fraction, four of them currently banned pesticides. Among those detected, concentrations of two particle-bound pesticides (permethrin and pyrimethanil) were, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in air in the literature. The detected pesticides appeared at frequencies ranging from <1 to 47%, with chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and diazinon presenting the highest frequencies. The concentrations detected ranged from a few to several hundred pg m -3, with ethoprophos showing the highest average concentration (149.2 pg m -3). Each station shows its own specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each site. Seasonal patterns were observed in the rural stations of Alzira and Sant Jordi, correlating pesticide detection with their application in agricultural practices, mostly in spring and early summer. These findings suggest that more efforts are required to implement an extensive air monitoring network in Europe for pesticide control and to develop regulations or recommendations regarding pesticide levels in ambient air. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Carabetta V.J.,Public Health Research Center | Tanner A.W.,New Jersey Medical School | Greco T.M.,Princeton University | Defrancesco M.,Public Health Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: Bacillus subtilis has adopted a bet-hedging strategy to ensure survival in changing environments. From a clonal population, numerous sub-populations can emerge, expressing different sets of genes that govern the developmental processes of sporulation, competence and biofilm formation. The master transcriptional regulator Spo0A controls the entry into all three fates and the production of the phosphorylated active form of Spo0A is precisely regulated via a phosphorelay, involving at least four proteins. Two proteins, YmcA and YlbF were previously shown to play an unidentified role in the regulation of biofilm formation, and in addition, YlbF was shown to regulate competence and sporulation. Using an unbiased proteomics screen, we demonstrate that YmcA and YlbF interact with a third protein, YaaT to form a tripartite complex. We show that all three proteins are required for proper establishment of the three above-mentioned developmental states. We show that the complex regulates the activity of Spo0Ain vivo and, using in vitro reconstitution experiments, determine that they stimulate the phosphorelay, probably by interacting with Spo0F and Spo0B. We propose that the YmcA-YlbF-YaaT ternary complex is required to increase Spo0A~P levels above the thresholds needed to induce development. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Weiderpass E.,Cancer Registry of Norway | Weiderpass E.,University of Tromsø | Weiderpass E.,Karolinska Institutet | Weiderpass E.,Public Health Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Safety and Health at Work | Year: 2012

This review summarizes the epidemiology of cancer of the female reproductive system and associated lifestyle factors. It also assesses the available evidence for occupational factors associated with these cancers. Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers are relatively common, and cause significant cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, whereas vulvar, vaginal, fallopian tube cancers, and choriocarcinomas are very rare. As several lifestyle factors are known to play a major role in the etiology of these cancers, very few published studies have investigated possible relationships with occupational factors. Some occupational exposures have been associated with increased risks of these cancers, but apart from the available evidence on the relationships between asbestos fibers and ovarian cancer, and tetrachloroethylene and cervical cancer, the data is rather scarce. Given the multifactorial nature of cancers of the female reproductive system, it is of the utmost importance to conduct occupational studies that will gather detailed data on potential individual confounding factors, in particular reproductive history and other factors that influence the body's hormonal environment, together with information on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors, including physical activity from multiple sources. Studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the female reproductive organs are also needed in order to elucidate the possible role of chemical exposures in the development of these cancers. Copyright © 2012 by Safety and Health at Work (SH@W).

Pardo-Marin O.,Public Health Research Center | Yusa-Pelecha V.,Public Health Research Center | Villalba-Martin P.,Public Health Research Center | Perez-Dasi J.A.,Public Health Research Center
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg-1 w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg-1 w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg-1). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg-1 w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Mirouze N.,Public Health Research Center | Prepiak P.,Public Health Research Center | Dubnau D.,Public Health Research Center
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

Phosphorylated Spo0A is a master regulator of stationary phase development in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis, controlling the formation of spores, biofilms, and cells competent for transformation. We have monitored the rate of transcription of the spo0A gene during growth in sporulation medium using promoter fusions to firefly luciferase. This rate increases sharply during transient diauxie-like pauses in growth rate and then declines as growth resumes. In contrast, the rate of transcription of an rRNA gene decreases and increases in parallel with the growth rate, as expected for stable RNA synthesis. The growth pause-dependent bursts of spo0A transcription, which reflect the activity of the spo0A vegetative promoter, are largely independent of all known regulators of spo0A transcription. Evidence is offered in support of a "passive regulation" model in which RNA polymerase stops transcribing rRNA genes during growth pauses, thus becoming available for the transcription of spo0A. We show that the bursts are followed by the production of phosphorylated Spo0A, and we propose that they represent initial responses to stress that bring the average cell closer to the thresholds for transition to bimodally expressed developmental responses. Measurement of the numbers of cells expressing a competence marker before and after the bursts supports this hypothesis. In the absence of ppGpp, the increase in spo0A transcription that accompanies the entrance to stationary phase is delayed and sporulation is markedly diminished. In spite of this, our data contradicts the hypothesis that sporulation is initiated when a ppGpp-induced depression of the GTP pool relieves repression by CodY. We suggest that, while the programmed induction of sporulation that occurs in stationary phase is apparently provoked by increased flux through the phosphorelay, bet-hedging stochastic transitions to at least competence are induced by bursts in transcription. © 2011 Mirouze et al.

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