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Vrba T.,Czech Technical University | Malatova I.,National Radiation Protection Institute, Czech Republic | Fojtik P.,National Radiation Protection Institute, Czech Republic | Fulop M.,Slovak Medical University | Ragan P.,Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2014

A simple hemispherical phantom has been designed and prepared for the EURADOS intercomparison exercise on 241Am activity determination in the skull (2011-13). The phantom consists of three parts that substitute bone and soft tissues. 241Am is deposited on the surfaces of the bone-substituting part. The design and assumed composition of phantom parts are discussed. A preparation of the voxel representation of the phantom is described. The spectrum of a real measurement of the physical phantom agrees well with the simulation. The physical phantom, and its voxel representation, is provided to the participants of the intercomparison exercise. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Nagyova V.,Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic | Nagy A.,R.O.S.A. | Janecek S.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Timko J.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Biologia | Year: 2010

Protozoa of the genus Acanthamoeba are organisms that can be generally found in the environment. The focus of this study is the detection of the presence of Acanthamoeba in different water sources and samples taken from airconditioning units. The identification of Acanthamoeba isolates was based on the morphology of cysts and trophozoites as well as PCR amplification with a genus specific primer pair JDP1 and JDP2. Growth characteristics and temperature tolerance were monitored. The pathogenic potential was tested in vitro on Vero cell cultures. Genotype identification was based on the sequencing of the GTSA. B1 PCR amplimer of 18S ribosomal DNA. The data obtained revealed that the isolates belong to T3 and T4 genotypes. One T3 and one T4 isolate contain a group I intron. The 933 base pair intron found in a genotype T4 isolate is considerably larger compared to formerly described introns of Acanthamoeba griffini (genotype T3) and A. Lenticulata (genotype T5). This is the first report detailing the environmental distribution of the Acanthamoeba genotypes in the region of Bratislava, Slovakia. © 2009 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Chovancova J.,Slovak Medical University | Conka K.,Slovak Medical University | Fabisikova A.,Slovak Medical University | Sejakova Z.S.,Slovak Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Blood serum specimens from 81 non-occupationally exposed adults residing in four areas close to municipal and waste incinerators as well as metallurgical industry plant and 44 adult subjects coming from control area of Slovakia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs).The concentration of total WHO 98TEQ PCDD/F/dl-PCBs in whole group of donors from areas where known sources causing dioxin contamination are present was significantly higher than in control group of donors (p<0.001). Correlation between the age of donors and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels was confirmed (Spearman's r PCDD/Fs=0.543, r dl-PCBs=0.521, p<0.001).Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the PBDE congeners in human serum of Slovak general population. The total concentration (congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) in control group was approximately 1.5-times higher in comparison to that of residents coming from areas with supposed environmental pollution. The most abundant congeners in all samples were BDE-47 and BDE-153 with median values of 0.24ngg -1 lipid and 0.23ngg -1 lipid, respectively. The positive association between PBDE values and age of donors was not found. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gicova A.,Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic | Orieskova M.,Comenius University | Oslanecova L.,Comenius University | Drahovska H.,Comenius University | Kaclikova E.,Food Research Institute
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) is responsible for rare but fatal cases of infection in neonates and immunocompromised infants. The aim of our study was to characterize Cronobacter strains isolated from powdered infant foods in Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2009-2010. Powdered infant food products have been analysed using currently available standard method ISO/TS 22964: 2006 for the detection of Cronobacter spp. complemented with qPCR confirmation of positive strains. Thirteen Cronobacter strains were isolated from more than 900 powdered infant formulae, milk-based and cereal-based powdered weaning food products. The strains were assigned to five biogroups and ten multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types. In total, twelve strains were identified as Cronobacter sakazakii and one strain as Cronobacter dublinensis. Multiple strains originated from parallel isolation were obtained in three samples and the variability between strains from the same food was observed twice. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the Cronobacter contamination detected in infant powdered food is low and originating in various accidental sources. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Hlavinkova L.,Slovak Medical University | Kristufkova Z.,Slovak Medical University | Mikas J.,Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic
Bratislava Medical Journal | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 reported in Slovakia from May 28, 2009 to December 30, 2009 and analyse the association between risk factors and severe outcome of these cases. BACKGROUND: In the spring of 2009, an outbreak of a pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09, emerged in Mexico and spread globally. Until December 2009, 1,014 cases were notified in Slovakia. METHODS: The data were collected within national influenza surveillance system. Odds ratios (95% CI) were calculated. Associations were found to be significantly associated with the worse outcome (p < 0.05) in the univariate analysis and were adjusted for possible effects of age and sex by using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Out of the total number of 1,014 cases, 131 (12.9 %) cases were hospitalized, and 43 (4.2 %) of those were admitted to intensive care units. During the reporting period, 38 deaths were reported, representing a case fatality rate of 3.75 %. The median age of severe cases (35 years, IQR = 29 y) was significantly higher than the median age of mild cases (24 years, IQR = 19 y; p < 0.001). By using a logistic regression, we found out that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (aOR = 9.2; 95%CI: 1.42-59.98), cardiovascular diseases (aOR = 14.97; 95%CI: 5.49-40.79), malignity (aOR = 7.6; 95%CI: 1.95-29.37) and gravidity (aOR = 55.21; 95% CI: 14.40-211.58) were significantly associated with severe outcomes of the cases. CONCLUSION: The fact, that 35% of severely ill patients did not report any risk factor suggests the importance of vaccination as a prevention of influenza.

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