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Bells Corners, Canada

Jiang G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jiang G.,Tianjin Medical University | Choi B.C.K.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | Choi B.C.K.,University of Toronto | And 6 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2011

Background: Injury and poisoning are a growing public health concern in China due to rapid economic growth, which has resulted in many cases with an injury-prone environment, such as overcrowded traffic, booming construction, and work-related stress. This study investigates the distribution and trends of deaths from injury and poisoning in Tianjin, China, by age, sex and urban/rural status, from 1999 to 2006. Methods: The study used data from the all-cause mortality surveillance system maintained by the Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each death certificate recorded 53 variables. Cause of death was coded using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Standardized mortality rates and proportions of deaths were analyzed. Results: Traffic accidents, suicide, poisoning, drowning and fall were the leading causes of fatal injuries in Tianjin from 1999 to 2006. Injury mortality rates were high in males, in rural areas, and in the older age groups. Despite low injury mortality rates, injury accounted for close to 50% of all deaths amongst the 5-29 year age group. Traffic accident mortality rates increased, although not significantly so, during the period from 1999 to 2006. Conclusion: Injury prevention and control is a high public health priority in Tianjin. Our detailed table on the number of deaths by causes of fatal injuries and by age group provides important information to set prevention strategies in the nurseries, schools, workplace and seniors homes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Choi B.C.K.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | Choi B.C.K.,University of Ottawa | Choi B.C.K.,University of Toronto | Choi B.C.K.,Shantou University
Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations | Year: 2010

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare two mathematical procedures to estimate the annual attributable number of deaths (the Allison et al procedure and the Mokdad et al procedure), and derive a new procedure that combines the best aspects of both procedures. The new procedure calculates attributable number of deaths along a continuum (i.e. for each unit of exposure), and allows for one or more neutral (neither exposed nor nonexposed) exposure categories. Methods: Mathematical derivations and real datasets were used to demonstrate the theoretical relationship and practical differences between the two procedures. Results of the comparison were used to develop a new procedure that combines the best features of both. Findings: The Allison procedure is complex because it directly estimates the number of attributable deaths. This necessitates calculation of probabilities of death. The Mokdad procedure is simpler because it estimates the number of attributable deaths indirectly through population attributable fractions. The probabilities of death cancel out in the numerator and denominator of the fractions. However, the Mokdad procedure is not applicable when a neutral exposure category exists. Conclusion: By combining the innovation of the Allison procedure (allowing for a neutral category) and the simplicity of the Mokdad procedure (using population attributable fractions), this paper proposes a new procedure to calculate attributable numbers of death. © 2010 Choi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Patriquin G.,Dalhousie University | LeBlanc J.,Dalhousie University | Lindsay R.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | Hatchette T.F.,Dalhousie University
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2016

Increased rates of Lyme disease and syphilis in the same geographic area prompted an assessment of screening test cross-reactivity. This study supports the previously described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Kotchi S.O.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | Brazeau S.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | Turgeon P.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | Pelcat Y.,Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Public health risks related to the microbial contamination of recreational waters are increased by global environmental change. Intensification of agriculture, urban sprawl, and climate change are some of the changes which can lead to favorable conditions for the emergence of waterborne diseases. Earth observation (EO) images have several advantages for the characterization and monitoring of environmental determinants that could be associated with the risk of microbial contamination of recreational waters in vast territories like Canada. There are a large number of EO systems characterized by different spatial, temporal, spectral, and radiometric resolutions. Also, they have different levels of accessibility. In this study, we compared several EO systems for the estimation of environmental determinants to assess their usefulness and their added value in monitoring programs of recreational waters. Satellite images from EO systems WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, SPOT-5/HRG, Landsat-5/TM, Envisat/MERIS, Terra/MODIS, NOAA/AVHRR, and Radarsat-2 were acquired in 2010 and 2011 in southern Quebec, Canada. A supervised classification of these images with a maximum likelihood algorithm was used to estimate five key environmental determinants (agricultural land, impervious surfaces, water, forest, and wetlands) within the area of influence of 78 beaches. Logistic regression models were developed to establish the relationship between fecal contamination of beaches and environmental determinants derived from satellite images. The power prediction of these models and criteria such as accuracy of classified images, the ability of the sensor to detect environmental determinants in the area of influence of beaches, the correlation between the estimated environmental determinants in the area of influence by the sensor with those estimated by very high spatial resolution reference sensors (WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1), and general criteria of accessibility (cost of the images, imaging swath, satellite revisit interval, hours of work, and expertise and material required to process the images) were used to evaluate the EO systems. The logistic regression model establishing the relationship between environmental determinants from Landsat-5/TM images and the level of fecal contamination of beaches is the one which performs best. These images are also those that best meet all of the evaluation criteria. This study showed that environmental determinants like agricultural lands and impervious surfaces present in the area of influence of beaches are those which contribute the most to the microbial contamination of beaches. Our study demonstrated the utility and the added value that EO images could bring to programs monitoring the microbial contamination of recreational waters. © 2008-2012 IEEE.

Hartley D.M.,Georgetown University | Nelson N.P.,Georgetown University | Arthur R.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Barboza P.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2013

Internet biosurveillance utilizes unstructured data from diverse web-based sources to provide early warning and situational awareness of public health threats. The scope of source coverage ranges from local media in the vernacular to international media in widely read languages. Internet biosurveillance is a timely modality that is available to government and public health officials, healthcare workers, and the public and private sector, serving as a real-time complementary approach to traditional indicator-based public health disease surveillance methods. Internet biosurveillance also supports the broader activity of epidemic intelligence. This overview covers the current state of the field of Internet biosurveillance, and provides a perspective on the future of the field. © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

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