Johnson K.C.,Public Health Agency of Canada
Tobacco control | Year: 2011
Four authoritative reviews of active smoking and breast cancer have been published since 2000, but only one considered data after 2002 and conclusions varied. Three reviews of secondhand smoke (SHS) and breast cancer (2004-2006) each came to different conclusions. With 30 new studies since 2002, further review was deemed desirable. An Expert Panel was convened by four Canadian agencies, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada and the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer to comprehensively examine the weight of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies and understanding of biological mechanisms regarding the relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer. This article summarises the panel's full report (http://www.otru.org/pdf/special/expert_panel_tobacco_breast_cancer.pdf). There are 20 known or suspected mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke, and recognised biological mechanisms that explain how exposure to these carcinogens could lead to breast cancer. Results from the nine cohort studies reporting exposure metrics more detailed than ever/never and ex/current smoker show that early age of smoking commencement, higher pack-years and longer duration of smoking increase breast cancer risk 15% to 40%. Three meta-analyses report 35% to 50% increases in breast cancer risk for long-term smokers with N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) slow acetylation genotypes. The active smoking evidence bolsters support for three meta-analyses that each reported about a 65% increase in premenopausal breast cancer risk among never smokers exposed to SHS. The Panel concluded that: 1) the association between active smoking and breast cancer is consistent with causality and 2) the association between SHS and breast cancer among younger, primarily premenopausal women who have never smoked is consistent with causality.
Greig J.D.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
Lee M.B.,Ryerson University
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012
The purpose of this study was to review documented outbreaks of enteric illness associated with nosocomial norovirus infections and to identify modes of transmission, morbidity and mortality patterns, and recommendations for control. Searches of electronic databases, public health publications, and federal, state/provincial public health websites were completed for 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Computer-aided searches of literature databases and systematic searches of government websites identified 54 relevant outbreak reports. Transmission routes included person-to-person (18·5%), foodborne (3·7%) and in the majority (77·8%) the route was unknown. Actions taken during the outbreak to control infection included restricting the movements of patients and staff (22·5%), enhanced environmental cleaning (13·6%) and hand hygiene (10·3%). Rapid identification of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals is vital for the immediate implementation of infection control measures and isolation of infected individuals in this mainly immunocompromised population. Studies that statistically evaluate infection control measures are needed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Pelletier C.,Public Health Agency of Canada
Chronic diseases and injuries in Canada | Year: 2012
"Diabetes in Canada: facts and figures from a public health perspective" is the first comprehensive diabetes surveillance report published by the Public Health Agency of Canada. The report aims to support public health professionals and organizations in developing effective, evidence-based public health policies and programs to prevent and manage diabetes and its complications. The report, developed in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, the Canadian Diabetes Association, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, CNIB, Health Canada and the academic community, uses data from national health surveys and vital statistics, as well as population-based administrative data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS). For the first time, the CCDSS contains data from all 13 Canadian jurisdictions. Using CCDSS data representing cases of diagnosed diabetes among Canadians aged one year and older, Diabetes in Canada presents prevalence and incidence national rates from the fiscal year 2008/2009 and national trends from 1998/1999 onwards. The report also outlines sub-populations at higher risk, ways of reducing the risks of developing the disease and its complications, and estimates of related economic costs. In addition, it contains sections on specific populations, including children and youth and First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations.
Ulanova M.,Lakehead University |
Tsang R.S.W.,Public Health Agency of Canada
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014
Haemophilus influenzae, particularly H influenzae serotype b (Hib), is an important pathogen that causes serious diseases like meningitis and septicaemia. Since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in the 1990s, the epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease has changed substantially, with most infections now caused by non-Hib strains. We discuss the importance of H influenzae serotype a (Hia) as a cause of serious morbidity and mortality and its global epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, immunology, prevention, and control. Much like Hib, the capsule of Hia is an important virulence factor contributing to the development of invasive disease. Molecular typing of Hia has identified distinct clonal groups, with some linked to severe disease and high case-fatality rates. Similarities between Hia and Hib capsules, their clinical presentation, and immunology of infection suggest that a bivalent Hia-Hib capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine could offer protection against these two important serotypes of H influenzae. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Robinson C.A.,Public Health Agency of Canada
Chronic diseases and injuries in Canada | Year: 2011
Despite high rates of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes, suitable risk assessment tools for estimating personal diabetes risk in Canada are currently lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional screening study that evaluated the accuracy and discrimination of the new Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK) for detecting diabetes and prediabetes (dysglycemia) in 6223 adults of various ethnicities. All participants had their glycemic status confirmed with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We developed electronic and paper-based CANRISK scores using logistic regression, and then validated them against reference standard blood tests using test-set methods. We used area under the curve (AUC) summary statistics from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to compare CANRISK with other alternative risk-scoring models in terms of their ability to discern true dysglycemia. The AUC for electronic and paper-based CANRISK scores were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73-0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73-0.78) respectively, as compared with 0.66 (95% CI: 0.63-0.69) for the Finnish FINDRISC score and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.66-0.72) for a simple Obesity model that included age, BMI, waist circumference and sex. CANRISK is a statistically valid tool that may be suitable for assessing diabetes risk in Canada's multi-ethnic population. CANRISK was significantly more accurate than both the FINDRISC score and the simple Obesity model.