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Chung H.,Korea University | Ng E.,Korea University | Ibrahim S.,University of Toronto | Ibrahim S.,Institute for Work and Health | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86-3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. © by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Tortajada C.,Public Health Agency of Barcelona ASPB | Tortajada C.,CIBER ISCIII | de Olalla P.G.,Public Health Agency of Barcelona ASPB | de Olalla P.G.,CIBER ISCIII | And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a known group at risk for hepatitis A and outbreaks among this group are frequent. In Barcelona, vaccination for MSM has been recommended since 1994. In 1998 a vaccination campaign among preadolescents was implemented and an immunization program in gay bathhouses began in 2004. Objective: to asses the incidence of hepatitis A in adults in Barcelona from 1989 to 2010 and to evaluate the outbreaks among MSM including all genotypes involved.Methods: All cases of acute hepatitis A among young adults notified to the Public Health Agency of Barcelona from 1989 to 2010 were included for analyses. We calculated the annual incidence rate and the incidence ratio male-to-female (M:F) as a marker for MSM. Spearman's coefficient was used to evaluate trends. We also evaluated the outbreaks among MSM and compared their characteristics using Chi-squared and ANOVA test. Fragment amplification of the VP1/P2A region was used for genetic analysis.Results: The median annual incidence for the period of study was 4.7/100000 among females and 11.7/100000 among males. The rate of hepatitis A for adult woman decreased over time (Spearman' coefficient = -0.63, p = 0.002), whereas there was no decrease for adult men (Spearman' coefficient = 0.097, p = 0.67). During the study period the M:F ratio increased (Spearman' coefficient = 0.73, p < 0.001).Three large outbreaks among MSM were detected. When comparing outbreaks, there was a decrease in the percentage of bathhouse users (from 47% to 19%, p = 0.0001) and sex workers (from 6.5% to 0%) while the percentage of HIV infected individuals did not change significantly (range: 21%-28%, p = 0.36). The isolated strains were closely related to those circulating in Europe.Conclusions: Annual incidences remain high among MSM without tendency to decrease. More strategies which effectively reach the whole MSM community are needed. © 2012 Tortajada et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Cervera M.I.,Jaume I University | Medina C.,Jaume I University | Portoles T.,Jaume I University | Pitarch E.,Jaume I University | And 6 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

A multi-residue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of around 130 multiclass pesticides in orange, nectarine and spinach samples by GC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole analyzer. Compounds have been selected from different chemical families including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides. Three isotopically labeled standards have been used as surrogates in order to improve accurate quantitation. Samples were extracted by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with ethyl acetate. In the case of spinach, an additional clean-up step by gel permeation chromatography was applied. Determination was performed by GC-MS/MS in electron ionization mode acquiring two MS/MS transitions for each analyte. The intensity ratio between quantitation transition (Q) and identification transition (q) was used as confirmatory parameter (Q/q ratio). Accuracy and precision were evaluated by means of recovery experiments in orange, nectarine, and spinach samples spiked at two concentration levels (0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg). Recoveries were, in most cases, between 70% and 120% and RSD were below 20%. The limits of quantification objective for which the method was satisfactorily validated in the three samples matrices were for most pesticides 0.01 mg/kg. Matrix effects over the GC-MS/MS determination were tested by comparison of reference standards in pure solvent with matrix-matched standards of each matrix. Data obtained showed enhancement of signal for the majority of analytes in the three matrices investigated. Consequently, in order to reduce the systematic error due to this effect, quantification was performed using matrix-matched standard calibration curves. The matrix effect study was extended to other food matrices such as raisin, paprika, cabbage, pear, rice, legume, and gherkin, showing in all cases a similar signal enhancement effect. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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