Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.02M | Year: 2010
The overall objective of the current project is a significant contribution to the dissemination of PV in order to improve the sustainability of the European energy supply and to strengthen the situation of the European PV industry. The approach to reach this overall objective is the development of solar cells which are substantially thinner than todays common practice. We will reduce the current solar cell thickness of typically 180 m down to a minimum of 50 m. At the same time we target to produce solar cells with high efficiencies in the range of 20% light conversion rate into power. The processes will be optimized and transferred into a pilot production line aiming at an efficiency of 19.5% on wafers of 100 m thickness at a yield that is comparable to the one in standard production lines. This shall help to drive down production costs significantly and save Si resources from todays 8 grams per watt to 3 grams per watt. In more detail the following topics are addressed: Wafering from Si ingots, surface passivation, light trapping, solar cell and module processing and handling of the thin wafers The partners of this project form an outstanding consortium to reach the project goals, including four leading European R&D institutes as well as four companies with recorded and published expertise in the field of thin solar cells and modules and handling of such. The project is structured in 10 work packages covering the process chain from wafer to module and the transfer into pilot production already at mid term as well as integral eco-assessment and management tasks.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-2.1-09 | Award Amount: 6.35M | Year: 2008
The overall objective of the current project is to make a significant contribution to the dissemination of PV in order to improve the sustainability of the European energy supply, to reduce environmental hazards such as global warming and to strengthen the economical situation of the European PV industry. The main project objective is the demonstration of PV modules using solar cells which are substantially thinner than todays common practice. We will reduce the current solar cell thickness from typically 200-250 m down to 100 m. Assuming a projected kerf loss of 120 m for 2010, this will enable more than 50% additional wafers to be cut from each silicon ingot. Additionally, by using advanced solar cell device structures and module interconnection technology, we target to increase the average efficiency for these thin cells up to 19% for mono-crystalline and 17.2% for multi-crystalline silicon and to reach a module-to-cell efficiency ratio above 90%. The processing and handling of wafers and cells will be adapted in order to maintain standard processing yields. Including scaling aspects, this corresponds to a module cost reduction of approximately 30% until 2011 and 1.0 /Wp extrapolated until 2016. Furthermore Si demand can be reduced from 10 to 6 g/Wp providing a significant effect on the eco-impact of PV power generation. The partners of this project form an outstanding consortium to reach the project goals, including two leading European R&D institutes as well as five companies with recorded and published expertise in the field of thin solar cells. The project is structured in 5 work packages covering the process chain from wafer to module as well as integral eco-assessment and management tasks. The expected impact of the project is a PV energy cost reduction of approximately 30%, a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and an improved competitiveness of the European solar cell, module and equipment manufacturers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2011.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 6.53M | Year: 2011
The Project, through a collaborative research between seven European and nine Japanese leading research centers in the field of concentration photovoltaics (CPV), pursues the improvement of present concentrator cell, module and system efficiency. Particular effort will be devoted to the development of multijunction solar cells (by researching on metamorphic, lattice match, inverted and bifacial growth, use of silicon substrates and incorporation of quantum nanostructures) with the objective of approaching the 50 % efficiency goal at cell level and 35% at module level (by incorporating advanced optics as for example Fresnel-Kohler concentrators). As a means to speed up the progress, the Project will also expand the use of characterization techniques suitable for CPV materials, cells, trackers, modules and systems by developing new ones, incorporating advanced semiconductor techniques to the field of photovoltaics (such as three dimensional real-time reciprocal space mapping, 3D-RTSM, piezoelectric photo-thermal and optical time resolved techniques) and by deploying a round robin scheme that allows the qualification and standardization of the results derived from the measurements. To support all these studies from a global perspective and, in particular, to ensure an accurate forecast of the energy produced at system level, the Project plans to build a 50 kW concentrator plant. To achieve its goals, the Project is structured into five RTD workpackages: new materials and device characterization, development of novel device technologies and quantum nanostructures for CPV, development of advanced CPV cells, development of characterization tools for CPV cells, modules and systems and development of CPV modules and systems. To strength the collaboration between EU and Japan, the Proposal also foresees more than 20 interchange visits. NGCPV is an EU coordinated project in the framework of call FP7-ENERGY-2011-JAPAN, forseeing a simultaneous start with the Japanese coordinated project. Accordingly, the Japanese project should start at the latest within 3 months of the signature of the EU grant agreement.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-4.1-03 | Award Amount: 3.43M | Year: 2008
The overall objective of the MEDIRAS project is the development and demonstration of cost effective and very reliable solar driven desalination systems for water scarcity affected regions with high insolation. The modular system set up is based on the highly innovative Membrane Distillation (MD) technology. MD is favorably applicable for small distributed desalination systems in the capacity range between 0.1-20m/day. MD is very robust against different raw water conditions and operable with alternating energy supply like solar energy. With respect to demonstration and market penetration of MD systems, the project will be focused on cost reduction and quality improvement for life time extension of MD modules and MD systems, on the development of components such as brine cooler and brine disposal units for ground water desalination at inland locations with limited raw water resources, and on the development of scalable system configurations in order to adapt them to different customer demands. Solar energy driven units for potable water disinfection will be integrated into the desalination units for health protection. The emphasize of the MEDIRAS project is on the design, set up and operation of different demonstration systems. Three compact systems of different sizes (150l/day and 300l/day) and two multi module two loop systems (3m/day and 5m/day) for full solar energy supply and for combined solar and waste heat energy supply will be installed in different European potential user sites in , Gran Canaria (Spain), Tenerife (Spain) and Pantelleria (Italy), as well as in Tunesia as an example for an North-African country. Comprehensive performance evaluation and water quality analyses will be conducted. With respect to market penetration in addition to the technological goals, focus will also be on the identification of suitable markets and target user-groups for the technology and the preparation of the conditions for the system to enter the identified markets.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SPIRE-01-2016 | Award Amount: 5.78M | Year: 2016
The ReWaCEM project aims at reducing water use, wastewater production, energy use, valuable metal resource recovery and water footprint by between 30-90% in the metal plating, galvanizing and printed circuit board industry. In order to achieve these goals, ReWaCem will adopt two cutting edge membrane technologies suitable for the requirements of closed material cycles approaches and recovery concepts in metal processing industry: Diffusion Dialysis (DD) and Membrane Distillation (MD) as an integrated hybrid process. This combination of existing technologies will be adapted to fit the requirements of 4 pilot demonstration sites in representative industrial applications of the metallurgical industry in order to evaluate the accomplishment of the ReWaCEM goals. Through the evaluation of the demonstration a highly attractive technological solution for low energy wastewater treatment will be available to be entered into the large and growing market of metal processing. This market will profit significantly from the technological outcome of the innovation action, with cost savings and environmental benefits as relevant rewards. In order to maximise impact, the project consortium was selected carefully to represent all relevant stakeholders in the quadrant of end users, scientific partners, associations and decision makers and SMEs. The consortium will establish a dissemination & exploitation board that will create a substantial network of interest groups from agencies, industry, research SMEs and research centres as well as universities. The successful exploitation of the results will lead to a post project up-scaling of the technology and a step by step market introduction. Part of ReWaCEM will be to mobilise all relevant stakeholders into promoting innovative membrane solutions for industrial water and resources management, leading to the effective implementation of European directives and policies while creating market opportunities for European industry and SMEs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-4.0-5 | Award Amount: 10.71M | Year: 2008
The use of renewable energy in the building sector is today dominated by the application of solar domestic hot water and PV systems in single-family houses. In order to significantly increase the use of renewable energy in the building sector, concepts have to be developed for large buildings. In these buildings high fractions of the energy demand can only be met with renewable energy sources, when the faade is used for energy conversion in addition to the roof. This is especially true for buildings with a small roof area compared to the floor area (high-rise buildings) and for existing buildings which generally have a higher energy demand than new buildings. Therefore the main focus of the project is to convert facades of existing high-rise buildings into multifunctional, energy gaining components. This goal will be achieved through the - development of new multi-functional faade components which combine standard features and the use of renewable energy resources and the - development of new business and cost models which consider the whole life cycle of a building and which incorporate the benefits from reduced running costs and greenhouse-gas emissions. The new components will in particular profit from the application of nano-structured coatings and films which will enhance their performance and durability due to antireflective, anti-soiling and seasonal shading functionality. In order to achieve a successful development and implementation of these new technologies and concepts European key actors from construction industry and energy research have agreed to collaborate within this project. The project results will be an important support for the European technology platforms ECTP, ESTTP and PV-platform in which the project partners have a leading role.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: EEB-ICT-2011.6.4 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2011
CASCADE will develop facility-specific measurement-based energy action plan for airport energy managers underpinned by systematic Fault Detection Diagnosis (FDD) Methods. CASCADE will develop a framework and methodology to underpin the execution of customised ICT solutions building upon existing ICT infrastructure. A measurement framework and minimal data set will be established that control and benchmark equipment performance, optimise user behaviour, and match client specifications. FDD enables beyond the state of the art\nenergy management because FDD can be used to detect problems in system design, equipment efficiency, and operational settings. CASCADE will enable transformation of FDD into actionable information by developing an energy action plan that links Actions-Actors-ISO Standards through a web-based management portal. CASCADE\nwill provide the European Commission with the opportunity to engage the European airport community on the topic of energy efficiency. Airports are politically visible and public hubs that connect Europe. ACI-Europe has committed its support to the proposal providing a direct exploitation channel to 400 of the 500 EU-27 airports. Furthermore, CASCADE embodies what E2B and the PPP is trying to do. It is industry shaped, politically visible, provides near term impact, creates jobs, and meaningfully addresses 20-20-20 targets. Airport managers are under considerable pressure to economise in energy management and need tools to provide adequate support. From CASCADE, they demand solutions that can integrate with existing ICT solutions installed at their facilities. From them, CASCADE can obtain access to their terminals, HVAC systems, renewable energy systems, co-generation plants, parking areas, maintenance hangers, security systems, etc. HVAC systems and CO2 reduction will receive special emphasis. CASCADE will target a 3 year return on investment and a 20% reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
Schicktanz M.D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems |
Wapler J.,Publet |
Henning H.-M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Energy | Year: 2011
In this paper, the primary energy consumption and the economic viability of a combined heating, cooling and power (CHCP) system are derived. The focus is on small-scale applications in the range below 100 kWH/70 kWC/58 kWel. CHCP is discussed between the boundaries of combined heating and power (CHP) and combined cooling and power (CCP) using a lumped parameter model. The method used is independent of a specific load profile for a building; only the full-load hours for heating and cooling are needed to predict the economic viability. German data is used for the example. A sensitivity analysis reveals the parameters with the highest impact on the primary energy consumption and the energy costs. The primary energy factors, the energy prices and the electric efficiency of the CHP are the dominating parameters. Increasing electricity prices favour the introduction of CHP and CHCP systems whereas increasing gas prices inhibit it. The energy cost analysis is extended to an economic analysis taking maintenance and investment costs into account. One result of this paper is a simple diagram which shows how many annual operation hours are needed for heating and cooling with CHCP to be more economical than a reference system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.