Schicktanz M.D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems |
Wapler J.,Publet |
Henning H.-M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Energy | Year: 2011
In this paper, the primary energy consumption and the economic viability of a combined heating, cooling and power (CHCP) system are derived. The focus is on small-scale applications in the range below 100 kWH/70 kWC/58 kWel. CHCP is discussed between the boundaries of combined heating and power (CHP) and combined cooling and power (CCP) using a lumped parameter model. The method used is independent of a specific load profile for a building; only the full-load hours for heating and cooling are needed to predict the economic viability. German data is used for the example. A sensitivity analysis reveals the parameters with the highest impact on the primary energy consumption and the energy costs. The primary energy factors, the energy prices and the electric efficiency of the CHP are the dominating parameters. Increasing electricity prices favour the introduction of CHP and CHCP systems whereas increasing gas prices inhibit it. The energy cost analysis is extended to an economic analysis taking maintenance and investment costs into account. One result of this paper is a simple diagram which shows how many annual operation hours are needed for heating and cooling with CHCP to be more economical than a reference system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Morin G.,Novatec Solar GmbH |
Dersch J.,German Aerospace Center |
Platzer W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems |
Eck M.,German Aerospace Center |
Solar Energy | Year: 2012
The Linear Fresnel Collector (LFC) technology is currently being commercialised by several companies for the application in solar thermal power plants. This study compares the electricity generation costs for LFC and Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC). PTC is the most commercial CSP technology to date and is therefore regarded as the benchmark. For reasons of comparability, direct steam generation is assumed for both LFC and PTC. For the LFC, cost data comparable to typical CSP plant sizes are hardly available. Therefore, the break even cost - referring to aperture-specific collector investment - is determined, where cost-parity of the electricity generation with a PTC reference plant is reached. This study varies the assumptions on collector performance and operation and maintenance costs to reflect different designs of LFC technologies. The calculations were carried out using cost and hourly simulation performance models. Depending on the assumptions, the costs for a linear Fresnel collector solar field should range between 78 and 216€/m 2 to reach cost-parity at assumed reference solar field costs of 275€/m 2 for the PTC. The LFC principle of arranging the mirrors horizontally leads to lower aperture-related optical efficiency which must be compensated by lower cost per m 2 of aperture compared to PTC. The LFC is a collector with significant cost reduction potential, mainly due to cheaper mirrors and structural advantages. The presented cost and performance targets shown in this study must be met by LFC technology developers to reach the PTC benchmark. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: EEB-ICT-2011.6.4 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2011
CASCADE will develop facility-specific measurement-based energy action plan for airport energy managers underpinned by systematic Fault Detection Diagnosis (FDD) Methods. CASCADE will develop a framework and methodology to underpin the execution of customised ICT solutions building upon existing ICT infrastructure. A measurement framework and minimal data set will be established that control and benchmark equipment performance, optimise user behaviour, and match client specifications. FDD enables beyond the state of the art\nenergy management because FDD can be used to detect problems in system design, equipment efficiency, and operational settings. CASCADE will enable transformation of FDD into actionable information by developing an energy action plan that links Actions-Actors-ISO Standards through a web-based management portal. CASCADE\nwill provide the European Commission with the opportunity to engage the European airport community on the topic of energy efficiency. Airports are politically visible and public hubs that connect Europe. ACI-Europe has committed its support to the proposal providing a direct exploitation channel to 400 of the 500 EU-27 airports. Furthermore, CASCADE embodies what E2B and the PPP is trying to do. It is industry shaped, politically visible, provides near term impact, creates jobs, and meaningfully addresses 20-20-20 targets. Airport managers are under considerable pressure to economise in energy management and need tools to provide adequate support. From CASCADE, they demand solutions that can integrate with existing ICT solutions installed at their facilities. From them, CASCADE can obtain access to their terminals, HVAC systems, renewable energy systems, co-generation plants, parking areas, maintenance hangers, security systems, etc. HVAC systems and CO2 reduction will receive special emphasis. CASCADE will target a 3 year return on investment and a 20% reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.02M | Year: 2010
The overall objective of the current project is a significant contribution to the dissemination of PV in order to improve the sustainability of the European energy supply and to strengthen the situation of the European PV industry. The approach to reach this overall objective is the development of solar cells which are substantially thinner than todays common practice. We will reduce the current solar cell thickness of typically 180 m down to a minimum of 50 m. At the same time we target to produce solar cells with high efficiencies in the range of 20% light conversion rate into power. The processes will be optimized and transferred into a pilot production line aiming at an efficiency of 19.5% on wafers of 100 m thickness at a yield that is comparable to the one in standard production lines. This shall help to drive down production costs significantly and save Si resources from todays 8 grams per watt to 3 grams per watt. In more detail the following topics are addressed: Wafering from Si ingots, surface passivation, light trapping, solar cell and module processing and handling of the thin wafers The partners of this project form an outstanding consortium to reach the project goals, including four leading European R&D institutes as well as four companies with recorded and published expertise in the field of thin solar cells and modules and handling of such. The project is structured in 10 work packages covering the process chain from wafer to module and the transfer into pilot production already at mid term as well as integral eco-assessment and management tasks.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-4.1-03 | Award Amount: 3.43M | Year: 2008
The overall objective of the MEDIRAS project is the development and demonstration of cost effective and very reliable solar driven desalination systems for water scarcity affected regions with high insolation. The modular system set up is based on the highly innovative Membrane Distillation (MD) technology. MD is favorably applicable for small distributed desalination systems in the capacity range between 0.1-20m/day. MD is very robust against different raw water conditions and operable with alternating energy supply like solar energy. With respect to demonstration and market penetration of MD systems, the project will be focused on cost reduction and quality improvement for life time extension of MD modules and MD systems, on the development of components such as brine cooler and brine disposal units for ground water desalination at inland locations with limited raw water resources, and on the development of scalable system configurations in order to adapt them to different customer demands. Solar energy driven units for potable water disinfection will be integrated into the desalination units for health protection. The emphasize of the MEDIRAS project is on the design, set up and operation of different demonstration systems. Three compact systems of different sizes (150l/day and 300l/day) and two multi module two loop systems (3m/day and 5m/day) for full solar energy supply and for combined solar and waste heat energy supply will be installed in different European potential user sites in , Gran Canaria (Spain), Tenerife (Spain) and Pantelleria (Italy), as well as in Tunesia as an example for an North-African country. Comprehensive performance evaluation and water quality analyses will be conducted. With respect to market penetration in addition to the technological goals, focus will also be on the identification of suitable markets and target user-groups for the technology and the preparation of the conditions for the system to enter the identified markets.