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Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thailand

Wuttimongkolchai A.,PTT Public Company Ltd
Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2016

Thailand has set the target of lowering CO2 by 20% compared with 2005 within 2025 at cOP21 meeting in Paris. The combining of five energy policies, i.e., PDP, EEP, ADEP, Oil Plan and Gas Plan, have been mandated since 2015 for supporting the stringent target. A presentation covers the new energy policy and planning; new 2016 vehicle excise tax; trend of vehicle technology; trends of fuels and lubricants; and Thailand situation on biofuel and lubricant. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the F+L Week 2016 (Singapore 3/8-11/2016). Source

Maihom T.,Kasetsart University | Pantu P.,Kasetsart University | Tachakritikul C.,PTT Public Company Ltd | Probst M.,University of Innsbruck | Limtrakul J.,Kasetsart University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

The effects of the zeolite framework on the mechanism of n-hexane monomolecular cracking have been investigated with M06-2X/6-311+G(2df,2p)//M06- 2X/6-31G(d,p) calculations. M06-2X is a recently developed hybrid-meta functional that is parametrized to include the London dispersion energy. The 38T H-FAU and 34T H-ZSM-5 nanocluster models where T atoms are either Si or Al atoms are used to represent H-FAU and H-ZSM-5 zeolites. The adsorption energies of hexane are predicted to be -10.8 and -18.2 kcal/mol for H-FAU and H-ZSM-5, respectively, in good agreement with experimental measurements. This indicates that the confinement effects on different types of zeolites can be well represented by the M06-2X functional. The reaction is assumed to proceed in two steps. In the first step, the central C-C bond of adsorbed n-hexane is protonated to form a hexonium intermediate. The adsorbed 3-C-hexonium is highly unstable and can be rapidly decomposed to produce the products. The first step is found to be the rate-determining step with activation energies of 45.7 and 45.8 kcal/mol for H-FAU and H-ZSM-5, respectively. For step two, the activation energies are calculated to be 8.6 and 9.9 kcal/mol for H-FAU and H-ZSM-5, respectively. The results clearly demonstrate that the reaction of n-hexane cracking is intrinsically the same in these large- and medium-pore zeolites. The different apparent activities can be explained by the different adsorption energies which are mainly due to the van der Waals interactions with the zeolite walls. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Virunanon C.,Chulalongkorn University | Ouephanit C.,Chulalongkorn University | Burapatana V.,PTT Public Company Ltd | Chulalaksananukul W.,Chulalongkorn University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Tapioca starch factories generate a large amount of wastewater and solid waste which take several steps of waste treatment to manage. The solid waste in particular contains a high level of starchy-lignocellulosic biomass, especially cassava pulp (CP). The wastewater, above mentioned, contains also residual cassava constituents and, usually are named cassava wastewater (CWW). These residual resources are potentially promising substrates for the production of biofuels (renewable energy carriers), such as products resulted from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. The conventional combination steps between acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis of starchy- lignocellulosic substrate, before fermentation process, generate complicated problems such as acid contaminated waste and spending of a long time (several hours) for hydrolysis reaction process. To address these problems, cassava pulp (CP) alone or supplemented with cassava starch wastewater (CWW) was used as a model feedstock (raw material) and an adapted one step enzymatic hydrolysis was created. This one step enzymatic hydrolysis process shows a shortened optimum treatment time (2 h) and yielded a reducing sugar level that was equal to that previously reported for the two stage combination between of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. After adapted one step enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch the reducing sugar solution was fermented using either Saccharomyces cerivisiae TISTR5339 or Clostridium butyricum TISTR1032 for ethanol and ABE production, respectively. The ethanolic fermentation (by using S. cerevisiae) of CP (67 g/L) in sterilized wastewater solution, yielded a bioproduct mixture having a content consisting (beside other components) from 8.8 g/L of ethanol, but this ethanol concentration was increased to 12.9 g/L with the replacement of the water by CWW. Fermentation of the saccharified CP alone or with CWW with C. butyricum yielded a total ABE production of 9.65 g/L and 10.24 g/L, respectively, but the ethanolic production was reduced from 9 g/L (93% of the solvent composition) to 1.64 g/L (16% solvent composition) by the addition of the CWW, with butanol as the major product (53.2%; 2.5 g/L). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chaichana E.,Chulalongkorn University | Khaubunsongserm S.,PTT Public Company Ltd | Praserthdam P.,Chulalongkorn University | Jongsomjit B.,Chulalongkorn University
Polymer Bulletin | Year: 2011

Copolymerization of ethylene and 1-hexene for obtaining the linear low-density polyethylene was conducted along with silicas as supports for [t-BuNSiMe 2Flu]TiMe 2/MMAO catalyst. Two silicas with different pore sizes were used to investigate the effect of pore sizes on copolymerization. In addition, gallium was also introduced into both silicas to improve their properties and enhance the catalytic activities of the system. It was found that before modification, the larger pore silica exhibited higher catalytic activity than the smaller one due to low internal diffusion resistance. After modification, both silicas exhibited higher catalytic activity comparing to their pristine condition. However, 1-hexene incorporation in the obtained copolymers was lower. The reduced surface area of silica after modification was the main reason for the decrease in 1-hexene incorporation. The properties of the copolymers by means of differential scanning calorimetry, gel permeation chromatography, and 13C NMR spectroscopy were further discussed in more detail. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Vasconcelos G.,University of Minho | Poletti E.,University of Minho | Salavessa E.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | Jesus A.M.P.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | And 2 more authors.
Engineering Structures | Year: 2013

The reconstruction of Downtown Lisbon after the 1755 earthquake was based on a novel constructive system of masonry buildings with an internal three-dimensional timber-framed structure named "gaiola pombalina". This internal structure aimed at improving the global stability of masonry buildings, enhancing their capacity to dissipate energy under seismic loadings. But this structural system is not only typical of Portugal, but constitutes part of the built heritage of various countries. This paper aims at getting experimental insight on the mechanical behaviour of timber-framed walls subjected to in-plane loading, as only scarce information is available in literature, in order to assess their effective performance to seismic actions. To do this, the experimental results of cyclic tests carried out on traditional timber-framed walls with distinct typologies will be analysed, namely (1) unreinforced timber-framed walls without infill; (2) timber-framed walls without infill with Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polymer sheets (GFRP) placed at the connections; (3) timber-framed walls with brick masonry infill. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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