Maihom T.,Kasetsart University |
Pantu P.,Kasetsart University |
Tachakritikul C.,PTT Public Company Ltd |
Probst M.,University of Innsbruck |
Limtrakul J.,Kasetsart University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010
The effects of the zeolite framework on the mechanism of n-hexane monomolecular cracking have been investigated with M06-2X/6-311+G(2df,2p)//M06- 2X/6-31G(d,p) calculations. M06-2X is a recently developed hybrid-meta functional that is parametrized to include the London dispersion energy. The 38T H-FAU and 34T H-ZSM-5 nanocluster models where T atoms are either Si or Al atoms are used to represent H-FAU and H-ZSM-5 zeolites. The adsorption energies of hexane are predicted to be -10.8 and -18.2 kcal/mol for H-FAU and H-ZSM-5, respectively, in good agreement with experimental measurements. This indicates that the confinement effects on different types of zeolites can be well represented by the M06-2X functional. The reaction is assumed to proceed in two steps. In the first step, the central C-C bond of adsorbed n-hexane is protonated to form a hexonium intermediate. The adsorbed 3-C-hexonium is highly unstable and can be rapidly decomposed to produce the products. The first step is found to be the rate-determining step with activation energies of 45.7 and 45.8 kcal/mol for H-FAU and H-ZSM-5, respectively. For step two, the activation energies are calculated to be 8.6 and 9.9 kcal/mol for H-FAU and H-ZSM-5, respectively. The results clearly demonstrate that the reaction of n-hexane cracking is intrinsically the same in these large- and medium-pore zeolites. The different apparent activities can be explained by the different adsorption energies which are mainly due to the van der Waals interactions with the zeolite walls. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Vasconcelos G.,University of Minho |
Poletti E.,University of Minho |
Salavessa E.,University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro |
Jesus A.M.P.,University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro |
And 2 more authors.
Engineering Structures | Year: 2013
The reconstruction of Downtown Lisbon after the 1755 earthquake was based on a novel constructive system of masonry buildings with an internal three-dimensional timber-framed structure named "gaiola pombalina". This internal structure aimed at improving the global stability of masonry buildings, enhancing their capacity to dissipate energy under seismic loadings. But this structural system is not only typical of Portugal, but constitutes part of the built heritage of various countries. This paper aims at getting experimental insight on the mechanical behaviour of timber-framed walls subjected to in-plane loading, as only scarce information is available in literature, in order to assess their effective performance to seismic actions. To do this, the experimental results of cyclic tests carried out on traditional timber-framed walls with distinct typologies will be analysed, namely (1) unreinforced timber-framed walls without infill; (2) timber-framed walls without infill with Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polymer sheets (GFRP) placed at the connections; (3) timber-framed walls with brick masonry infill. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Virunanon C.,Chulalongkorn University |
Ouephanit C.,Chulalongkorn University |
Burapatana V.,PTT Co. Public |
Chulalaksananukul W.,Chulalongkorn University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
Tapioca starch factories generate a large amount of wastewater and solid waste which take several steps of waste treatment to manage. The solid waste in particular contains a high level of starchy-lignocellulosic biomass, especially cassava pulp (CP). The wastewater, above mentioned, contains also residual cassava constituents and, usually are named cassava wastewater (CWW). These residual resources are potentially promising substrates for the production of biofuels (renewable energy carriers), such as products resulted from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. The conventional combination steps between acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis of starchy- lignocellulosic substrate, before fermentation process, generate complicated problems such as acid contaminated waste and spending of a long time (several hours) for hydrolysis reaction process. To address these problems, cassava pulp (CP) alone or supplemented with cassava starch wastewater (CWW) was used as a model feedstock (raw material) and an adapted one step enzymatic hydrolysis was created. This one step enzymatic hydrolysis process shows a shortened optimum treatment time (2 h) and yielded a reducing sugar level that was equal to that previously reported for the two stage combination between of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. After adapted one step enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch the reducing sugar solution was fermented using either Saccharomyces cerivisiae TISTR5339 or Clostridium butyricum TISTR1032 for ethanol and ABE production, respectively. The ethanolic fermentation (by using S. cerevisiae) of CP (67 g/L) in sterilized wastewater solution, yielded a bioproduct mixture having a content consisting (beside other components) from 8.8 g/L of ethanol, but this ethanol concentration was increased to 12.9 g/L with the replacement of the water by CWW. Fermentation of the saccharified CP alone or with CWW with C. butyricum yielded a total ABE production of 9.65 g/L and 10.24 g/L, respectively, but the ethanolic production was reduced from 9 g/L (93% of the solvent composition) to 1.64 g/L (16% solvent composition) by the addition of the CWW, with butanol as the major product (53.2%; 2.5 g/L). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chaichana E.,Chulalongkorn University |
Khaubunsongserm S.,PTT Public Company Ltd |
Praserthdam P.,Chulalongkorn University |
Jongsomjit B.,Chulalongkorn University
Express Polymer Letters | Year: 2010
The copolymers of ethylene and 1-hexene were prepared with half-metallocene titanium complex ([t-BuNSiMe2Flu]TiMe2) and modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO). The initial concentrations of 1-hexene were varied to investigate how the different amounts of comonomer affect on the catalytic activity of copolymerization system and microstructure of the copolymers. It has been found that this catalytic system was not active for hexene polymerization, however, it can be active when ethylene was introduced to perform ethylene-hexene copolymerization. As comonomer, 1-hexene provides positive comonomer effect on the system although very high concentration of 1-hexene was introduced. However, the microstructures of the obtained copolymers, which were examined by 13C-NMR need to be improved because with highly alternating sequence distribution of comonomer causing them losing some essential specific thermal properties. © BME-PT.
Wuttimongkolchai A.,PTT Public Company Ltd
Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2016
Thailand has set the target of lowering CO2 by 20% compared with 2005 within 2025 at cOP21 meeting in Paris. The combining of five energy policies, i.e., PDP, EEP, ADEP, Oil Plan and Gas Plan, have been mandated since 2015 for supporting the stringent target. A presentation covers the new energy policy and planning; new 2016 vehicle excise tax; trend of vehicle technology; trends of fuels and lubricants; and Thailand situation on biofuel and lubricant. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the F+L Week 2016 (Singapore 3/8-11/2016).
Tangnoi V.,PTT Public Company Ltd
Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2014
This presentation discusses global energy outlook, transportation technology trends, and research studies on fuels and lubricants, particularly biofuel-blended transportation fuel, electric vehicles and battery, and high performance and green lubricant technology. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 20th Annual Fuels & Lubes Asian Conference (Singapore 3/6-7/2014).
PTT Public Company Ltd | Date: 2015-10-13
Coffee saucers; coffee cups and saucers; drinking glasses; drinking straws. Canned ready-to-drink coffee; roasted coffee; instant roasted coffee; ground roasted coffee; strong black coffee; black coffee; powdered coffee; instant powdered coffee; iced coffee; fresh coffee; milk coffee; espresso coffee; coffee beverages; beverages (coffee -based); coffee-mixed beverages; coffee beans; cocoa beverages; chocolate beverages; tea beverages; beverages (chocolate-based); beverages (tea-based); cocoa-mixed beverages; chocolate-mixed beverages; tea-mixed beverages; syrup (not use as beverage); sugar; honey; natural seasoning (use for beverage); preparations for making coffee beverage; preparations for making cocoa beverage; preparations for making chocolate beverage. Fruit flavor beverages; herb flavor beverages; cocktails non-alcoholic; fruit juice-mixed beverages; royal jelly-mixed beverages; fruit-mixed beverages; vegetable-mixed beverages; fruit extract beverages; fruit juice beverages; mineral water beverages; rose flavor beverages; fruit flavor and savor beverages; punch beverages; aperitifs, non-alcoholic; aloe vera drinks ; jelly beverages (plant extract); syrup for beverages; pomegranate extract for beverages; lemonade for beverages; orange juice for beverages; instant powdered for beverages, non-alcoholic; instant fruit flavor powdered for beverages; essences for making beverages. Selling food and drink services; selling food and drink services (self-service); distributing food and drink services; catering services (food and drink); caf.
PTT Public Company Ltd | Date: 2013-04-09
An electromagnetic oil tank heating unit and an electromagnetic oil tank heating system comprising multiple units of electromagnetic oil tank heating units is provided. Each electromagnetic oil tank heating unit comprises a generator capable of generating high frequency electrical current connected to a transformer and a cooling unit, an induction plate with induction coil embedded therein, connected to the transformer and at least one cooling unit, providing cooling to the transformer and the induction plate. The generator, the transformer, the induction plate and the cooling unit are arranged on a frame equipped with wheels to permit mobility of the unit to allow moving the heating unit to a specific location along the length of an oil tank. The frame is configured to include a mechanical means allowing the induction plate supported thereon to move up and down, and forward and backward relative to the oil tank.
PTT Public Company Ltd | Date: 2014-10-15
The present invention discloses an electromagnetic oil tank heating unit (100) and an electromagnetic oil tank heating system (200) comprising multiple units of electromagnetic oil tank heating unit (100). Each electromagnetic oil tank heating unit (100) comprising a generator (20) capable of generating high frequency electrical current connected to a transformer (25) and a cooling unit (40, 40), an induction plate (30), with induction coil (35) embedded therein, connected to the transformer (25) and at least one cooling unit (40, 40) providing cooling to the transformer (25) and the induction plate (30). The generator (20), the transformer (25), the induction plate (30), the cooling unit (40, 40) are arranged on a frame (45) equipped with wheels (50) to permit mobility of the unit so as to allow moving the heating to a specific location along the length of an oil tank (55). The frame (45) is configured to include a mechanical means allowing the induction plate (30) supported thereon to move up and down, and forward and backward relative to the oil tank (55).
PTT PUBLIC COMPANY Ltd | Date: 2014-07-18
Sealing apparatus for applying corrosion prevention compound in the gap between flanges without using heat consists of 3 units including hydraulic power unit, compound injection cylinder unit, and flange belt unit. The present invention is used to apply corrosion prevention compound in the gap between flanges without using heat for melting the compound before sealing. The compound injection cylinder unit comprises two integrally formed cylinders sharing one connecting rod wherein the lower cylinder defines the hydraulic cylinder and the upper cylinder defines the compound injection cylinder. The compound injection cylinder unit is vertically formed on a pushcart provided with wheels for manual transportation. A threaded coupler is provided on top of the lid of the compound injection cylinder for connection with a hose for transferring the compound to the inlet on the flange belt unit. The flange belt unit is provided in various diameters from 2-24 inches. The application of corrosion prevention compound in the gap between flanges is carried out by applying the pressure from the hydraulic cylinder powered by the hydraulic power unit to inject the compound in the cylinder through the hose into the gap between the flanges of pipes.