Ulbrich M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research |
Radosta S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research |
Kiessler B.,PTS Papiertechnische Stiftung Heidenau |
Vorwerg W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2012
The adsorption onto a softwood pulp of cationic modified starches with a degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.015 to 0.130 and native potato starch was investigated using a method based on size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). This technique provides information about the amount and molecular composition of the adsorbed starch product such as the AP-AM-ratio, the average MW and molar mass distribution. Factors influencing adsorption, like the electrolyte content in the suspension and the initial starch polysaccharide concentration, were investigated. Furthermore, hand sheets were made and the resulting mechanical paper strength was tested. Results were analysed statistically using analysis of variance. Representative results were discussed in detail. In general, low-substituted cationic starch (DS 0.030) exhibited a higher degree of adsorption and resulted in high paper strength when there was a low electrolyte content in the starch-pulp-suspension. However, high amounts of electrolytes impeded electrostatic interaction of the charged groups of the starch polysaccharides and cellulose fibre due to partial screening and therefore strongly limited adsorption. This resulted in lowered mechanical paper strength. The water quality of the suspensions had little impact on the polyelectrolyte adsorption of the highly substituted cationic starch (DS 0.100). However, paper strength was markedly higher in the case of starch adsorption where there was a high ionic content and when both starch polysaccharides-AP and AM- were adsorbed. The initial starch concentration determined starch adsorption both quantitatively and qualitatively and subsequently paper strength as well. The relation between adsorption behaviour and paper strength was discussed, particularly in the case of 6% initial starch concentration. In deionised water (DW), the low-substituted starch (DS 0.03) adsorbed onto the pulp to a greater extent with an AP-AM-ratio similar to that of the initial starch. Moreover, this achieved the best strength properties in contrast to 36 dGH, where less starch adsorbed and that being almost exclusively AP. In water with 36 dGH, the highly substituted starch (DS 0.100) with both the AP and AM was absorbed and this resulted in higher paper strength. In contrast, AM was almost exclusively adsorbed in DW. Increasing the initial starch concentration increased the amount adsorbed while subsequently changing the AP-AM-ratio towards increased AM adsorption and decreased AP adsorption in the case of DS 0.100 in DW. Exclusive adsorption of AM markedly lowered the development of the paper strength. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.