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Heidenau, Germany

Lee H.,Korea University | Lee H.,Kyungil University | Jung C.,PTS | Song C.S.,Korea University | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a novel power system protection scheme in the power system including high temperature superconducting cables (HTS cables) and high temperature superconducting fault current limiters (HTSFCLs). The superconducting power system utilizes the large-capacity and environment-friendly characteristics of superconducting power equipment. Since the superconducting devices are one of the most optimal solutions to enhance the robustness of the power system, especially in Icheon substation in Korea, the protection of the conservative relays and additional relays, differential and instantaneous overcurrent relays, should be alternated with a new optimal protection coordination under the changed system configurations. To find the optimal protection scheme, the power system with existing power devices, conservative relays, HTS cables, and fault current limiter has to be modeled in Icheon substation and the novel protection scheme has been verified through RTDS test with real-time relay test. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Simstich B.,PTS | Beimfohr C.,Vermicon AG | Horn H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

This paper describes the results of laboratory experiments using a thermophilic aerobic MBR (TMBR) at 50°C. An innovative use of submerged flat-sheet MBR modules to treat circuit wastewater from the paper industry was studied. Two experiments were conducted with a flux of 8-13L/m2/h without chemical membrane cleaning. COD and BOD5 elimination rates were 83% and 99%, respectively. Calcium was reduced from 110 to 180mg/L in the inflow to 35-60mg/L in the permeate. However, only negligible membrane scaling occurred. The observed sludge yield was very low and amounted to 0.07-0.29gMLSS/g CODeliminated. Consequently, the nutrient supply of ammonia and phosphate can be lower compared to a mesophilic process. Molecular-biological FISH analysis revealed a likewise high diversity of microorganisms in the TMBR compared to the mesophilic sludge used for start-up. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidising bacteria were detected at thermophilic operation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


A discussion covers a closer examination of mottling in sheet offset printing. The study is based on 24 papers involved in an international research project on mottling in a sheet offset printing machine. Part 1 was in the May 2011 issue of WfP, pages 324-28. The focus in this Part 2 is on the evaluation of the influence of the paper itself on the formation of mottling as a function of the raw material feed and manufacturing technology with consideration of the ink-water combinations. Discussion topics include selection of paper qualities; characterization of the paper to be printed in terms of scanning electron microscope visualization of the surface; topography; coating thickness; porosity; dependencies between paper properties and tendency to mottle (data treatment of high quality graphic papers (Hochwertige Grafische Offset Papiere, HGOP); HGOP case analysis; diverse other offset papers (Diverse Weitere Offset Papiere, DWOP); and summary and conclusions. Mottling is perceived at over 180 μm. Of the 24 papers studied, 18 were HGOP and 6 were DWOP. All were printed under the same conditions. DWOP had higher mottling indices than HGOP. With wash water contact of the paper before inking the tendency to mottle increases with the amount of water (water interference mottling). The differences in properties determined of the papers did not adequately mirror the measured mottling index (HGOP only comparison). No onecause dependency between the measured paper properties and the mottling index was found. In the DWOP, the topography and pore system had a large influence on the tendency to mottle upon printing. The dependency of mottling on the binder distribution can not be directly quantified. Studies on binder distribution by NIR were not successful because of the large depth of penetration of the light (80 to 100 μm). The studies on selected papers using IR mapping are not yet concluded. The bandwidth of the high quality sheet offset papers with respect to mottling is small and therefore trying to find basic mottling dependencies for these papers is of limited use. Source


Fiedler D.,PTS | Behnsen P.,PTS | Gierth Y.,PTS | Schmidt W.A.,Schoeller Technocell
International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies | Year: 2014

Coated paper printed with black indigo shows marked crazing or fold cracking as it is known in offset printing. Photographic paper (silver salt) exhibit a magenta line in the fold after being turned umpteen times. E-PHOTO paper (Felix Schoeller Digital Media) printed with indigo exhibits neither crazing nor magenta crazing according to the findings gathered by Felix Schoeller Digital Media. PTS has been commissioned to develop a standardised method (PTS Craze Test) and to conduct it on three paper samples in order to determine the differences in the crazing behaviour of paper used in the photo album sector. This method must be conducted under pre-defined conditions and serve as certification of the above-mentioned problem area by virtue of its reproducibility. © 2014 Society for Imaging Science and Technology. Source


A discussion covers a study on the influence of humidity and climate on single coated paper. Special tests were made to determine the elongation coefficients β. The coefficients were determined in two steps, namely, the length and elongation measurements, and the calculation of the coefficients using a finite element method (FEM) model. The coefficients reflected the various paper making and coating recipes and manufacturing conditions. The coefficients were determined to be a function of the various coatings. The coefficients can thus be used to determine the curling behavior of papers and the influence of the coating on the behavior of the overall paper. The method developed here is a basis for experiments on elongation and expansion of multi-coated papers. Discussion topics include introduction; material and methods (preparation of the samples; test range for coating variants; moistening the coating); method to measure the elongation (prerequisites and device basis; length measurement by scanner (Paper Technology Specialists PTS method); calculation of elongation coefficients by the FEM model approach); selected measurement results (elongation behavior of the coating with climate change; elongation behavior of the coating with moistening; curl behavior of the two-layer samples); and summary and conclusions. The coatings were made on polyethylene and polyester. The coatings were made with an Erichsen laboratory coater by the blade or knife method followed by drying in a Binder laboratory drying chamber providing homogeneous coatings on the sheets. The measured offset and special coating elongation coefficients β were between-0.0001 and - 0.0005 due to curling of the coating on the base. Further studies are ongoing to explain this coating shrinkage behavior. Source

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