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Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Kumar A.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Rahal A.,Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go Anusandhan Sansthan DUVASU | Mahima,Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go Anusandhan Sansthan DUVASU | Verma A.K.,Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go Anusandhan Sansthan DUVASU | Kumar A.,Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go Anusandhan Sansthan DUVASU | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Sciences

At present, almost every third person in the society is under stress and having chronic disorders like diabetes, arthritis, allergy, cardiovascular disease, fatigue and even cancer. Recently, there is decline in the physical and mental capabilities along with the social values. So this certainly should raise the alarms as to why such deterioration is taking place in the society or what are the changes in the lifestyle that might have a role direct/indirect in evolution of such changes? Vegetable is an immense store of active chemical compounds and considered as the cheapest and most easily available sources of carbohydrate, fiber, proteins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids. The intake of green and leafy vegetables lowers the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, anemia, cancer, oxidative stress, diabetes, weight gain etc. In recent time, vegetables have also been identified as safe and economic expression system for producing the recombinant proteins including the vaccines against many infectious diseases like hepatitis B, malaria, rotavirus, HIV, Helicobacter pylori, pestedes petits ruminants etc. However, besides the beneficial effect, contaminated and raw vegetables harbors pesticide residues and many pathogenic microbes viz., norovirus, Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella, Listeria monocytogens and also prove to be an excellent source of disease outbreaks. The present review highlights the phytonutrients and neutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables; their medicinal and health benefits for humans and their domestic as well as companion animals along with their fruitful practical applications and perspectives like bioreactor for producing vaccine along with the methods that can increase their nutritional benefits. © Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavid Evum Go An Sans DUVASU | Verma A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavid Evum Go An Sans DUVASU | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Journal of Biological Sciences

Since ancient era, herbal therapy remained as medicine's backbone which is economic, safer and easily available to most of people in world. Among diverse herbal treasure, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for humankind. Neem is regarded as "free tree of India", "wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", Village dispensary", "Divine tree", "heal all", "Materia medica" and "Panacea of all Diseases". It is among highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin. It has been used in different medicinal systems: ayurveda, unani, homoeopathic medicine, therefore, considered as cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the plant have some biological and medicinal properties hence valuable source of natural medicinal products. Compounds isolated from neem are broadly classified into two: (1) Isoprenoids (2) Non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoid compounds consists of diterpenoids, triterpenoids and steroids while while non-isoprenoids contains proteins and/or amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids etc. It is found beneficial in leprosy, gastro-intestinal problems, malaria, intestinal helminthiasis, tuberculosis, ringworms, skin disorders, boils, epilepsy, fever, respiratory distress, nausea, ulcers and in many other health related problems. This review gives a bird's eye view particularly on history, classification, active principles, mechanism of action and potential uses of neem in safeguarding human and animal health along with the several commercial preparations available in the market. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Kapoor S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

As promising' antibacterials, endolysins own several pertinent features viz., diverse novel mode of action, antibacterial spectrum, low probability of developing resistance and being highly active with explicit specificity against host bacteria. Bacteriophage endolysins are mureolytic enzymes which facilitate direct targeting of peptidoglycan bonds in the bacterial cell wall. Encoded by the bacteriophage genome they are synthesized at the end of the phage lytic life cycle, headed for lysing host cell and releasing newly produced virions. In addition to this "lysis from within", endolysins from phages of gram-positive hosts are also able to swiftly lyse bacteria upon exogenous application. Lysozyme as well as endopeptidase like lysostaphine have been recommended in neonatal streptococcal and staphylococcal infection, respectively. Literature reveals strong potential of phage enzymes in human health care and veterinary medicine for control of pathogens and treatment of diverse systemic infections. They have wide applications in pathogen detection and development of diagnostics, as a means of biodefence, eliminating food pathogens and in control of phytopathogens. The defensins and cathelicidins can be exploited as enzybiotics among other families of antimicrobial peptide gene. In innate immunity such antibiotic peptides that are endogenous in nature play crucial role and forms first line of defense for protecting internal as well as external body surfaces of the host. The important portals of enzybiotics (EnzyBase and phiBIOTICS) are playing crucial role for disseminating the state of knowledge of enzybiotics. The present review discusses the widespread potential of various bacteriophage lysins/enzybiotics in the perspective of future antibacterial drug development. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Verma A.K.,UP Pandit D.Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishvidhyalaya Ewam Go Anusandhan Sansthan DUVASU | Kumar A.,UP Pandit D.Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishvidhyalaya Ewam Go Anusandhan Sansthan DUVASU | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Deb R.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, affects both humans and animals and is among the most common but neglected direct zoonotic disease in the world, particularly in untreated or undiagnosed animals as well as humans. Now, it has been considered as a re-emerging disease causing global health problem due to its increasing incidences in developing as well as developed nations. It is a multisystemic disease leading to death. Diagnostic tests of importance are Latex Agglutination Test (LAT), lateral flow and immunoglobulin M (IgM) based ELISA, PCR based assays, Multiple-microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Molecular tools like PCR-RFLP, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, qPCR and immunocapture PCR have all been found useful for rapid and confirmatory detection and differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic leptospires. Inactivated/killed and attenuated vaccines are always attempted, since the beginning of vaccine and vaccination story, against all emerging pathogens with mixed success stories. The advanced tools and techniques like recombinant DNA technology, reverse genetics, DNA vaccination, molecular genetics and proteomics approaches are being explored for search of novel antigens, proteins and genes as potential candidates to discover safer, efficient and better vaccines for leptospirosis. The present review highlights the leptospirosis, susceptible population, disease transmission and epidemiology, treatment, trends and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and vaccination strategies in humans and animals with a view to combat this organism having public health significance. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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