Pt JNM Medical College

Raipur, India

Pt JNM Medical College

Raipur, India
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Gajbhiye S.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Patra P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Yadav M.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College
Acta Tropica | Year: 2017

Codon usage bias is due to the non-random usage of synonymous codons for coding amino acids. The synonymous sites are under weak selection, and codon usage bias is maintained by the equilibrium in mutational bias, genetic drift and selection pressure. The differential codon usage choices are also relevant to human infecting Plasmodium species. Recently, P. knowlesi switches its natural host, long-tailed macaques, and starts infecting humans. This review focuses on the comparative analysis of codon usage choices among human infecting P. falciparum and P. vivax along with P. knowlesi species taking their coding sequence data. The variation in GC content, amino acid frequencies, effective number of codons and other factors plays a crucial role in determining synonymous codon choices. Within species codon choices are more similar for P. vivax and P. knowlesi in comparison with P. falciparum species. This study suggests that synonymous codon choice modulates the gene expression level, mRNA stability, ribosome speed, protein folding, translation efficiency and its accuracy in Plasmodium species, and provides a valuable information regarding the codon usage pattern to facilitate gene cloning as well as expression and transfection studies for malaria causing species. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Pandey N.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Chandrakar A.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Garg M.L.,Pt Jnm Medical College
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Perioperative visual loss (POVL), a rare but devastating complication, has been reported after spine, cardiac, and head-neck surgeries. The various causes include ischemic optic neuropathy, central or branch retinal artery occlusion, and cortical blindness. The contributory factors described are microvascular diseases and intraoperative hemodynamic compromise. However, the exact association of these factors with post-operative blindness has not yet been confirmed. A case of POVL with caesarian section surgery is being presented. The visual loss occurred due to a combined occlusion of central retinal artery and vein. The causes, presentation, and risk factors of POVL after non-ocular surgery are being discussed. © 2005 - Indian Journal of Ophthalmology.

Yadav M.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Swati D.,Banaras Hindu University
Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences | Year: 2016

The variable surface proteins expressed by P. falciparum and P. vivax are transported to the surface of infected erythrocyte and are exposed to the host immune system. The possibility of using variable surface proteins as a common drug target has been analyzed in both the Plasmodium species. Sequence analysis of variable surface proteins showed a low-level conservation within as well as between the species. Amino acid composition analysis revealed higher frequency of hydrophilic amino acids as compared with that of hydrophobic residues. In order to gain more insight into their diverse functional role, the three-dimensional structure was predicted using comparative modeling approach. These models were evaluated and validated by checking stereochemistry of underlying amino acids. Structural alignment of variable surface proteins by superimposing them shows less conservation. Due to differences at sequence as well as structural level, the variable surface proteins are expected to show difference in their degree of invasiveness. These differences were also cross-examined by evolutionary study, and the results obtained were in accordance with the aforesaid study. The existence of structural differences noticed in the present study showed that the variable surface proteins could not be used as a common drug target in both the malarial species. Therefore, species-specific strategy may be followed for drug targeting against variable surface proteins of P. falciparum and P. vivax. © 2015, International Association of Scientists in the Interdisciplinary Areas and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Panigrahi S.,Dr Bram Hospital | Patra P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Khodiar P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Objective To evaluate feasibility of systematic neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in Chhattisgarh. Methods A pilot study was done from February 2008 through January 2009 in Department of Pediatrics & Neonatology, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College & Dr.B.R.A.M. Hospital, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) on a total of 1,158 neonates. Blood samples from the neonates were taken after 48 h of birth on filter paper for detection of sickle cell anemia using Biorad hemoglobin variant Neonatal sickle cell short programme by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). On follow up, cases were analyzed by HPLC using Beta thalassemia short program to rule out false negative case and other hemoglobin variants. Results Of the 1,158 neonates screened, 628 were boys (54.2%) and 530 were girls (45.8%). Sickle cell disease was found in 3 cases (0.2%) (95%C.I 0.12-0.28), sickle cell trait was found in 68 cases (5.8%) (95%C.I 4.5-7.5). After 6-9 mo of age three cases of sickle cell diseases were reinvestigated, out of which one case turned out to be double heterozygous for sickle cell and beta thalassemia trait. Fourteen preterm neonates reported as normal in initial screening were called for follow up after 6 mo of age, 10 infants reported in OPD and 4 lost in follow up. These 10 infants were reinvestigated; 2 had sickle cell disease, 1 had sickle cell trait and 7 infants were normal. Sixty eight cases of sickle cell trait found with initial screening were also called for follow up after 6 mo of age; 61 cases reported in OPD between 6 mo to 1 y of age and 7 cases lost in follow up. Sixty one infants were reinvestigated; 60 had sickle cell trait and 1 had sickle cell disease which was reported earlier as Sickle cell trait (FAS). Thus on total follow up of cases, there were 5(0.4%) sickle cell disease, 61(5.26%) sickle cell trait, 1(0.08%) double heterozygous for sickle cell and beta thalassemia trait which needs mutation studies for thalassemia characterization (s/β 0 or s/β +). Conclusions Early detection of sickle cell disease (SS) done by neonatal screening will help in early prevention and management of complications in postnatal period.

Singh K.,Pt Jnm Medical College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

The inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the commonest single gene disorder of the world population. Sickle cell anaemia being the most widespread and numerically the most important haemoglobinopathy in the world today The major features of sickle cell disease (SCD) in most patients are life-long anaemia and the consequences of recurrent vaso-occlusion. Many complications of SCD involve anaemia, vaso-occlusion etc. Impairment of pulmonary function is a common complication of SCD. The patients suffering from this disease frequently present with complaints referable to the pulmonary system although other systems are also involved. Hence present study was carried out to evaluate the pulmonary function tests in sickle cell disease patients ( HbSS ),sickle cell trait patients(Hb AS) with normal person ( HbAA) non-sicklers.1) To study the pulmonary alterations in cases of homozygous SS & heterozygous AS Sickle Cell Disorder subjects.2) To compare the parameters with normal healthy controls & assess the importance of PFT in "Steady State"(free from complications or crisis)as an objective evidence to predict the risk of "Sickle Cell Chronic Lung Disease'' in future. A cross sectional study was done in 50 cases of SCD (22HbSS & 28HbAS) and age and sex matched normal 50 HbAA controls. From the various measured pulmonary function test( PFT )parameters Forced Vital Capacity( FVC),Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec(FEV1),FEV1/FVC, Forced Mid Expiratory Flow(FEF25%-75%) were selected for the study. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis involving computation of Mean, Standard deviation, Independent T test. Mean value of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25%-75% were found to be significantly lower than normal controls, but the difference in FVC between HbAS and HbSS turned out to be statistically non-significant whereas the difference in FEV1, FEV1/FVC,FEF25%-75% between HbAS and HbSS was statistically significant. There were significant reductions in pulmonary function test parameters in sickle cell anaemia patients as compared to normal controls indicative of mixed pattern (both restrictive and obstructive) lung impairment in sickle cell anaemia.

Tripti N.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Namrata S.,Pt Jnm Medical College
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India | Year: 2011

Objective The present study was conducted with the aim to assess and comparatively evaluate the safety and efficacy of misoprostol alone and mifepristone with miso-prostol for second trimester termination of pregnancy. Methods and Materials The study was conducted on 200 selected cases, divided in two groups of 100 cases each. In the study group mifepristone was given 200 mg 12 h before intravaginal insertion of 600 μg of misoprostol followed by 400 μg every 3 h up to a maximum of 5 doses or until the abortion occurs, whichever occurs early. In the control group only misoprostol was inserted in the same dose regime. The results were analyzed. Results The successrateinboth regimens was 100%. Mean induction abortion interval from the insertion of the first misoprostol tablet was significantly shorter in the mifepri-stone pretreated group 6.72 ± 2.26 h as compared to 12.93 ± 3.4 h in the misoprostol alone group (P < 0.001). The mean blood loss was slightly higher in the control group. The mean dose of the misoprostol required was significantly less in the study group 1,186 ± 291.64 μg as against 1,736 ± 320.20 μg (P < 0.001). The side effects observed in both the groups were similar mainly nausea vomiting, fever, abdominal cramps. Conclusion Pretreatment with mifepristone 12 h before intravaginal misoprostol significantly improves the induction abortion interval. . © 2012 Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India.

Patra P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Khodiar P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Hambleton I.R.,University of the West Indies | Serjeant G.R.,Sickle Cell Trust Jamaica
Journal of Community Genetics | Year: 2015

In India, the Chhattisgarh State screening programme for sickle haemoglobin focuses on children aged 3–15 years and has screened over 1,050,440 subjects over the last 6 years. Commencing in the District around the capital Raipur, this programme has now completed screening in 7 of the 27 Districts of Chhattisgarh State. Screening is initially performed by solubility tests on fingerprick samples in the field and those with positive tests have venipunctures for haemoglobin electrophoresis. The frequency of the sickle cell trait was 9.64 % and of the SS phenotype 0.29 % with only two Districts in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, most Districts showing an excess of the SS ‘phenotype’ most readily explained by symptomatic selection. The estimated costs were US$0.28 (solubility tests alone) and US$0.60 (haemoglobin electrophoresis). Of the social groupings commonly used in India, the OBC’s (other backward classes) had the highest frequencies of the sickle cell gene mutations, followed by the Scheduled Tribes and the Scheduled Castes. The objectives of the programme were the detection of sickle cell disease for prospective clinical management and of the sickle cell trait for purposes of genetic counselling. The former objective is being met for diagnosis although the success of referral to clinic services requires audit. The objective of genetic counselling is compromised by the failure of the screening test to detect other genes of potential clinical significance such as HbD Punjab and the beta thalassaemia trait. Despite these exceptions, the detection of HbS appears relatively robust and could be another condition factored into the traditions of partner selection amongst the underprivileged communities of this state. Overall, the Chhattisgarh programme seeks to address the daunting challenges of large populations carrying the sickle cell gene and maybe a useful model for elsewhere. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nigam P.,Pt Jnm Medical College
International Journal of Trichology | Year: 2013

Desmogleins (Dsgs) are calcium-dependent, transmembrane glycoproteins belonging to the desmosomal cadherin superfamily, which play significant roles in selective calcium ions (Ca2+) dependent adhesion interactions between cell surfaces. Four subtypes of Dsg have been identified. Recent observations show the distribution of Dsgs can correlate with specific types of keratinization, anchorage of the hair, and hypotrichosis.

Pande B.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Parganiha A.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Patra P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Pati A.K.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

The present study aimed to investigate probability of a possible endogenous circadian rhythm in human cognitive attribute to estimate short intervals. Apparently healthy young males and females were selected for our study. Eight subjects prospectively produced the short-time intervals 10 s and 60 s at 2 hourly intervals in 30 h constant routine (CR) study conducted in spring (CR-1). The study was repeated again in autumn (CR-2) in the remaining eight subjects. The established circadian markers, namely serum cortisol, salivary melatonin levels and tympanic temperature were also measured either in CR-1 or CR- 2. Oral temperature was measured simultaneously. Circadian rhythms were validated in serum cortisol, salivary melatonin, oral, and tympanic temperatures. Circadian rhythm in 60 s estimates was observed in a few subjects and in all males at group level in CR-1. The cognitive attribute to perceive short intervals vary as function of season. The results provide evidence in support of interaction among the interval, circadian and circannual timing systems in human.

Patra P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Chauhan V.S.,ICGEB | Khodiar P.K.,Pt Jnm Medical College | Dalla A.R.,Red Cross | Serjeant G.R.,Sickle Cell Trust Jamaica
Journal of Community Genetics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of large-scale population screening for the sickle cell gene in high risk areas with limited resources. A programme designed to detect the sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease has screened 359,823 subjects among 2,087 (99.7%) of the villages in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh State, India between October 2007 and June 2010. Children aged 3-15 years were initially screened in the villages by solubility tests on fingerprick samples. Venipuncture was performed on subjects with positive solubility tests, and the samples were transferred to Raipur Medical College for alkaline haemoglobin electrophoresis. The sickle cell trait occurred in 33,467 (9.30%) and an SS phenotype in 747 (0.21%). The gene frequencies were not in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium most likely due to a deficiency of the SS phenotype failing to enter the sampled population from either sickness or early death. Subjects with abnormal haemoglobin genotypes may factor this information into decisions regarding marriage and avoid the risks of having children with sickle cell disease. The techniques described may be a model for other developing societies with limited resources. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

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