Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences

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Joseph J.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Basu D.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research
Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) | Year: 2017

METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of face-to-face brief motivational intervention aimed at reducing heavy alcohol use conducted in middle-income countries were identified through electronic databases: Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library published up to and including 2015. Methodological quality assessment of the RCTs was made by using two validated tools.RESULTS: Nine RCTs of alcohol brief intervention in middle-income countries met the review's inclusion criteria. The results of five trials suggest a benefit for brief intervention in reducing self-reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Methodological quality was found to be adequate using a standard tool, without any serious methodological issues or biases in more than half of the selected trials. The content of brief intervention was based on the principles of motivational interviewing and was delivered by trained nurses in almost all the trials.CONCLUSION: This systematic review of RCTs on alcohol brief intervention conducted in middle-income countries suggests that brief intervention can help reduce self-reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use in primary-care population.AIMS: The aim of this paper is to systematically review the efficacy of alcohol brief intervention in middle-income countries. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Madan A.K.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Despite significant research in understanding of neoplastic diseases, the success rate for oncology drugs is relatively very low. A major challenge before the scientific community is to design new chemical entities that will be highly selective for cancer cells so as to minimize side effects. Classification models (CMs) models play a prominent role in prediction of the biological properties of newly designed compounds before their synthesis and prevent non-optimal use of resources. Though correlation models far outnumber classification models for development of various therapeutic agents but the significance of classification models for development of anti-cancer agents can not be underestimated. Various techniques employed for development of classification models for anti-cancer activity have been briefly reviewed. Moreover, successful use of some of these classification techniques for the development of models for anti-proliferative activity has been illustrated using a data set comprising of 53 analogues of N-Benzoylated phenoxazines and phenothiazines. Resulting classification models with high degree of accuracy can play a vital role in providing lead structures for the development of novel anti-proliferative agents for cancer chemotherapy. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Dhall M.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Madan A.K.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation | Year: 2016

The main objective of the present study was to simultaneously improve the dissolution profile and content uniformity of ezetimibe (EZ), a low dose poorly soluble drug, through co-inclusion in urea. EZ, a new category of cholesterol absorption inhibitor used in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and sitosterolemia, reveals extremely poor solubility in water and dissolution rate limited absorption resulting in its low bioavailability. In the current study, EZ—a highly substituted potent compound which is normally non-complexing guest (NNCG) was successfully incorporated in urea lattice in the presence of readily complexing guest (RCG). The modified Zimmerschied calorimetric method was used for the estimation of the minimum amount of RCG required per unit weight of drug for co-inclusion in urea. Ezetimibe urea co-inclusion complexes (EZUCIC) containing varying proportions of RCG and NNCG were prepared and subjected to thermal analysis using DSC. The formation of EZUCIC was confirmed by FTIR, DSC, XRD and 1H-NMR studies. The thermal data was subjected to the regression studies to study the effect of the relative molar fraction of RCG on the heat of decomposition of EZUCIC. Study exhibited improved content uniformity of EZ in EZUCIC. In vitro dissolution rate studies exhibited steep improvement in the dissolution profile of EZ, a BCS class II drug. The dissolution data was subjected to various release kinetic models. Steep improvement in the dissolution profile offer urea co-inclusion technique a promising alternative for formulation of poorly soluble potent drug candidates into immediate release products with improved content uniformity. © 2016, The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology.


Gupta M.,M D University | Madan A.K.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Archiv der Pharmazie | Year: 2012

In the present study both classification and correlation techniques of diverse nature were successfully employed for the development of models for the prediction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitory activity using a dataset comprising 50 analogs of quinolone carboxylic acid. The values of various molecular descriptors (MDs) for each analog in the dataset were computed using the MDS V-life science QSAR plus module. The values of other MDs which are not part of MDS V-life science were computed using an in-house computer program. A decision tree (DT) was constructed for the HIV integrase inhibitory activity to determine the importance of MDs. The DT learned the information from the input data with an accuracy of 98% and correctly predicted the cross-validated (10 fold) data with an accuracy of 96%. Three MDs, E-state contribution descriptor (SssOHE), molecular connectivity topochemical index (chi;A), and eccentric connectivity topochemical index (ξC C), were used to develop the models using moving average analysis (MAA). The accuracy of classification of single descriptor based models using MAA was found to vary from a minimum of 96% to a maximum of 98%. The statistical significance of the models was assessed through specificity, sensitivity, overall accuracy, Mathew's correlation coefficient, and intercorrelation analysis. The widely used methods like multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and principal component regression were employed for development of correlation models. The models were generated on a training set of 36 molecules. The models had a correlation coefficient (r 2) of 0.86 to 0.92, significant cross validated correlation coefficient (q2) of 0.79 to 0.85, F-test from 63.2 to 93.06, r 2 for external test set (pred-r2) from 0.69, coefficient of correlation of predicted dataset (pred- r2Se) of 0.77, and degree of freedom from 27 to 30. Alignment independent descriptors, SsOHE-index, SaaCHE index, SssCH2, and x log P were found to be the most important descriptors for the development of correlation models for the prediction of HIV integrase inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Madan A.K.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Computers in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Four novel distance based molecular descriptors termed as superpendentic eccentric distance sum indices 1-4 (denoted by) as well as their topochemical counterparts (denoted by) have been conceptualized and developed in the present study. The sensitivity towards branching, discriminating power, and degeneracy of the proposed novel descriptors were investigated. Utility of these indices was investigated for development of models through decision tree and moving average analysis for the prediction of human corticotropin releasing factor-1 receptor binding affinity of substituted pyrazines. A wide variety of 46 2D and 3D molecular descriptors including proposed indices was employed for development of models through decision tree and moving average analysis. The calculation of most of these descriptors for each compound of the dataset was performed using online E-Dragon software (version 1.0). An in-house computer programme was also employed to calculate additional topological descriptors which did not figure in E-Dragon software. The decision tree classified and correctly predicted the input data with an impressive accuracy of 92% in the training set and 71% during cross-validation. A total of three descriptors, identified by decision tree, were subsequently utilized for development of suitable models using moving average analysis. These models predicted human corticotropin releasing factor-1 receptor binding affinity with an accuracy of ≥85%. The statistical significance of models was assessed through sensitivity, specificity and Matthew's correlation coefficient. High discriminating power, high sensitivity towards branching amalgamated with negligible degeneracy offer proposed descriptors a vast potential for use in the quantitative structure-activity/property/toxicity relationships so as to facilitate drug design. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh K.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted from mobile phone (MP) may cause variety of ocular effects, e.g., cataract, corneal edema and lacrimation of eyes. Currently very little information is available on acute effects of EMW emitted from MP on human visual system. So, study was planned to see the effects of EMW emitted from MP on visual evoked potential (VEP). This study was conducted in 9 healthy male subjects in the age group of 20 40 years with history of exposure to MP for around 1 hour/day for the last 3-9 years. After explaining the whole procedure to the subject, written consent was taken. Recording was done on RMS EMG EP MK-2 machine, using 10/20 system of electrode placement. The electrodes were placed at Cz (active electrode), O1-O2 (reference electrodes) and Fz (ground electrode). In dark room, subject was made to sit 1 meter away from screen of TV (275/350 mm size). The black and white checks of 16/16 mm size (subtending an angle of 32 minutes of an arc) were generated on the monitor by an electronic pattern generator. The contrast between black and white checks was 67%. The checks were made to reverse at a rate of 1 Hz and 100 responses were recorded. The subject was instructed to fix on small dot at its center with one eye; and the other eye was closed with hand. Waves of VEP were recorded before and after exposure to MP kept near to right ear (as right ear was found to be dominant ear, used by subjects to hear the MP, so right eye was near to MP and had more exposure compare to left eye) for 10 min. Statistical analysis was done by student ‘t’ test. After exposure to MP in left eye, there was significant increase (P<0.001) in latency of P100wave without affecting the latency of other waves. Although amplitude of P100– N 75waves was reduced but not statistically significant. But in right eye, after exposure to MP, latency of N75(P<0.001), P100(P<0.05) and N145(P<0.001) waves were increased without any alteration in amplitude of P100– P75waves. Effect on right eye was slightly different. This study suggests that EMW emitted from MP may affect the VEP. © 2016, Association of Physiologists and Pharmacologists of India. All Rights reseved.


Singh V.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Kumar I.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Bhagol A.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2011

This study evaluated the efficacy of a 2.0-mm locking plate/screw system compared with a 2.0-mm non-locking plate/screw system in mandibular fractures. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 2.0-mm locking plates (group A) or 2.0-mm nonlocking plates (group B). All patients were followed up for 12 weeks postoperatively. Complications were analysed according to the type of plate used and the site of fracture. Fifty patients with 76 fractures met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six fracture sites were treated with 2.0-mm locking plates and 40 with 2.0-mm nonlocking plates. The number of patients requiring postoperative maxillomandibular fixation was significantly higher in group B (p < 0.01); seven complications occurred representing 9% of the total. Two complications occurred in the locking group and five in the nonlocking group with complication rates equalling 6% and 13%, respectively. When comparing the overall complication rates according to plates used, the χ2 test showed no statistically significant difference between the locking and nonlocking plates (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mandible fractures treated with 2.0-mm locking plates and 2.0-mm nonlocking plates present similar short-term complication rates. © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.


Dhaulakhandi D.B.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Fetal diagnosis and therapy | Year: 2010

The failure of closure of the neural tube during development leads to malformations called neural tube defects (NTDs). The most common neural malformations in humans include anencephaly, encephalocele, exencephaly, craniorachischisis spina bifida with or without myelomeningocele, lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelocystocele. Current preventive strategies are mainly based on pharmacologic/folic acid supplementation. However, stem cell-based and other combination approaches may emerge as potential treatment options for NTDs. This review provides an account of experimental evidence on stem cell therapy and newer treatment options for NTDs which have become available in recent years. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Singh V.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Dhingra R.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Bhagol A.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2012

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of sternoclavicular graft (SCG) as an adaptive center along with buccal fat pad (BFP) lining for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstruction in TMJ ankylosis. Patients and Methods: A prospective, preliminary, short-term study with only 6 months' follow-up was performed in 10 patients with TMJ ankylosis. All patients had complete osseous ankylosis, and the mean duration of ankylosis was 6.4 years (range, 3 to 13 years). Interpositional arthroplasty with SCG along with BFP lining was done in all cases. Postoperative clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed for 6 to 9 months. Results: Maximum interincisal opening at 6 months' follow-up was 35.6 ± 4.97 mm (range, 31 to 45 mm). Similarly, protrusive movement at follow-up of 6 months was 2.7 ± 1.25 mm (range, 1.5 to 5.5 mm), whereas laterotrusive movement was 4.1 ± 1.98 mm (range, 1.5 to 7.0 mm) toward the affected side and 2.4 ± 0.99 mm (range, 1 to 4.0 mm) toward the normal side. After 3 months, 9 of 10 patients had no pain on function, and all the patients were relieved of pain at the end of 6 months. On radiographic follow-up at 9 months, there was noticeably significant adaptation and remodeling of SCG as observed on panoramic radiography and computed tomography scan. In all the patients there was some degree of mandibular deviation toward the operated side, although the occlusion was satisfactory and they were pleased with the outcome. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, we conclude that after release of TMJ ankylosis, reconstruction with SCG combined with interposition of BFP lining followed by vigorous physiotherapy is a successful strategy for the management of TMJ ankylosis with short-term follow-up of 6 months. © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.


Khatri N.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences | Madan A.K.,Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling | Year: 2014

The histamine H3 receptor has been perceived as an auspicious target for the treatment of various central and peripheral nervous system diseases. In present study, a wide variety of 60 2D and 3D molecular descriptors (MDs) were successfully utilized for the development of models for the prediction of antagonist activity of sulfonylurea derivatives for histamine H3 receptors. Models were developed through decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and moving average analysis (MAA). Dragon software version 6.0.28 was employed for calculation of values of diverse MDs of each analogue involved in the data set. The DT classified and correctly predicted the input data with an impressive non-error rate of 94% in the training set and 82.5% during cross validation. RF correctly classified the analogues into active and inactive with a non-error rate of 79.3%. The MAA based models predicted the antagonist histamine H3 receptor activity with non-error rate up to 90%. Active ranges of the proposed MAA based models not only exhibited high potency but also showed improved safety as indicated by relatively high values of selectivity index. The statistical significance of the models was assessed through sensitivity, specificity, non-error rate, Matthew's correlation coefficient and intercorrelation analysis. Proposed models offer vast potential for providing lead structures for development of potent but safe H3 receptor antagonist sulfonylurea derivatives. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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