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Himmerich H.,Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology | Himmerich H.,University of Leipzig | Himmerich H.,Institute of Psychiatry | Willmund G.D.,Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology | And 7 more authors.
European Cytokine Network

Growing evidence suggests involvement of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α system in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Research into post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has investigated serum levels of TNF- α, but not to date its soluble receptors sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75. We examined serum levels of TNF- α, sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 in 135 male German soldiers 70 of whom had been deployed abroad and 65 in Germany only. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured using the Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). Correlational analysis controlling for multiple testing, showed no significant Spearman rank correlations between PDS or TICS scores and serum levels of TNF- α, sTNF-R p55 or sTNF-R p75, either in the full sample or in the group of soldiers who had been deployed abroad. ANCOVAs showed no significant differences between soldiers with or without a PDS-derived diagnosis of PTSD, or between soldiers with or without deployment abroad, after controlling for age, smoking and body mass index (BMI). These results suggest that the TNF- α system, as reflected by TNF- α, sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 serum levels, does not play a major role in the pathophysiology and development of PTSD symptoms as measured by the PDS and the TICS. However, several methodological and contextual issues have to be considered. © 2015, John Libbey Eurotextg. All rights reserved. Source

Bandelow B.,University of Gottingen | Koch M.,Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology | Zimmermann P.,Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology | Biesold K.-H.,Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology | And 2 more authors.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

In 2006 and 2007, around 0.4 and 0.7% of all German soldiers involved in missions abroad were registered as suffering from PTSD. The frequency of PTSD in the German Armed Forces was assessed from army records. All soldiers admitted to the German Military Hospital in Hamburg Germany, with PTSD (n = 117) in the years 2006 and 2007 were assessed by using questionnaires and structure interviews. Risk factors associated with PTSD were identified. Of the 117 soldiers with PTSD, 39.3% were in missions abroad, and 18.0% had participated in combat situations. Five (4.3%) were wounded in combat, and 4 of them had a serious irreversible injury. In total, 53.8% of the PTSD cases were related to injuries or physical/sexual abuse, while 46.2% were due to psychological traumatization. Among soldiers with PTSD who were not abroad, sexual or physical abuse were the most common traumas. In 35.9% of the patients, there was evidence for psychiatric disorders existing before the traumatic event. The percentage of women among sufferers from PTSD was significantly higher than the proportion of women in the armed forces (30.8% vs. 5.17%). A careful psychiatric screening before recruitment might help to identify persons at risk of PTSD. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

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