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Bridgend, United Kingdom

Grey I.,Trinity College Dublin | Al-Saihati B.A.,Senior Cycle | Al-Haddad M.,Arabian Gulf University | Mcclean B.,Psychology
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2015

Background: Relatively little information is available regarding the use of psychiatric services by individuals with intellectual disability (ID) in Arab countries. The current study aimed to identify (1) the reasons for referral; (2) demographic characteristics of individuals referred; (3) previous contact with child psychiatric services; (4) psychiatric diagnoses; (5) level of ID; (6) nature of interventions; and (7) patterns of medication usage in individuals attending a specialist psychiatric service for individuals with an ID in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method: Case file analysis was used. Files that recorded attendance at the specialist service within a specific calendar year were selected. A total of 537 files were available for review and 79 contained records indicating the individual had been seen within the year. Results: The primary referral reason to adult psychiatric services was the presence of behavioural disturbance. Pharmacological intervention was the dominant treatment choice and no individual was recommended for psychological/behavioural intervention. Psychiatric diagnosis was not recorded in over 90% of cases. Conclusion: Services in the Kingdom of Bahrain for individuals with ID rely exclusively on pharmacological approaches for the treatment of behavioural disorders. Implications for best practice guidelines are discussed. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Stenzel N.,University of Marburg | Krumm S.,University of Munster | Hartwich-Tersek J.,Psychology | Beisel S.,Salus Klinik Lindow | Rief W.,University of Marburg
Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy | Year: 2013

Recent research on psychotherapy has focused on the development and evaluation of disorder-specific treatments. Even though much progress has been made, treatments have not yet reached an ideal level of effectiveness. One reason for this could be the systematic overlap and high comorbidity between mental disorders. Consequently, a new trend has been the examination of transdiagnostic factors in order to conceptualize psychopathology and develop treatment tools. One approach is to strengthen skills (e.g., emotion regulation) that are relevant in different mental disorders. The unique feature of this study is the simultaneous examination of several skills and their relation to psychopathology. Therefore, the current study investigated the skill levels of different groups of inpatients (tinnitus, tinnitus/unipolar mood disorder and anxiety/unipolar mood disorder) and normal controls (n=124). Participants were evaluated with the 'operationalized assessment of skills interview'. This interview allows the simultaneous assessment of seven skills (problem solving, social competence, stress management, emotion regulation, relaxation ability, self-efficacy and self-esteem) that are relevant for treatment planning. The results confirm negative correlations between skills and the number of comorbid diagnoses. Multivariate analyses identified significant differences in skill levels between clinical sample and normal controls. Furthermore, within the clinical sample, there were significant differences in skill levels and skill profiles between the different clinical subsamples. To conclude, the improvement of skills that can support recovery from mental disorders is especially relevant for patients with multiple diagnoses. The authors suggest assessing the different skills prior to treatment and considering the skill profiles when planning interventions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Verdonck M.C.,Occupational Therapy | Chard G.,University College Cork | Nolan M.,Psychology
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology | Year: 2011

Purpose. This study explores the experiences of Irish people with high cervical spinal cord injuries living with electronic aids to daily living (EADL) and the meaning attributed to such systems in the context of participation in everyday life. Method. Qualitative methodology using a phenomenological approach was used to explore the phenomenon of living with EADL. Data were collected using four focus groups of users and nonusers of EADL (n = 15). All participants had high cervical spinal cord injuries (C3-5). Groups were video recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using descriptive phenomenological analysis. Findings. Findings revealed key elements of the meaning of living with EADL. Two key themes, time alone and changed relationships are described. These contribute to the super ordinate theme of autonomy. Findings suggest that participants perceived improvements in both anticipated and actual lived experiences with EADL. Themes are interrelated and together represent a summary of the experience of living with environmental controls. The themes described are similar to those found in other spinal injury studies relating to quality of life. Conclusions. Findings highlight differences in life experiences for those with and without EADL and provides motivation to address this difference. Such insights are valuable for both users and providers of EADL. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Gori M.,Italian Institute of Technology | Sandini G.,Italian Institute of Technology | Martinoli C.,Istituto David Chiossone | Burr D.C.,Psychology | Burr D.C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Brain | Year: 2014

Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind. © 2013 The Author.

The State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI 2) is a widely used measure of the experience and expression of anger within forensic populations. Despite anger expression difficulties being common among individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), little is known as to how those who offend perform in the STAXI 2. In exploring the application of the STAXI 2 to individuals with an ASD, two groups detained in high security psychiatric care were compared. Results suggest that whilst those with offending unconnected to a preoccupation have more complex psychiatric presentations, MANOVAs revealed no differences in demographic and cognitive characteristics. Within the Autism Spectrum Quotient, those with offending linked to a preoccupation score higher in the attending to details scale and in the STAXI 2 reported significantly lower levels of 'anger expression out'. It is proposed that an examination of anger is useful for all individuals with an ASD who offend. © 2014 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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