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Östermalm, Sweden

Thorup E.,Uppsala University | Nystrom P.,Uppsala University | Gredeback G.,Uppsala University | Bolte S.,Center for Psychiatry Research | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Autism

Background: The ability to follow gaze is an important prerequisite for joint attention, which is often compromised in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The direction of both the head and eyes provides cues to other people's attention direction, but previous studies have not separated these factors and their relation to ASD susceptibility. Development of gaze following typically occurs before ASD diagnosis is possible, and studies of high-risk populations are therefore important. Methods: Eye tracking was used to assess gaze following during interaction in a group of 10-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD (high-risk group) as well as a group of infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk group). The infants watched an experimenter gaze at objects in the periphery. Performance was compared across two conditions: one in which the experimenter moved both the eyes and head toward the objects (Eyes and Head condition) and one that involved movement of the eyes only (Eyes Only condition). Results: A group by condition interaction effect was found. Specifically, whereas gaze following accuracy was comparable across the two conditions in the low-risk group, infants in the high-risk group were more likely to follow gaze in the Eyes and Head condition than in the Eyes Only condition. Conclusions: In an ecologically valid social situation, responses to basic non-verbal orienting cues were found to be altered in infants at risk for ASD. The results indicate that infants at risk for ASD may rely disproportionally on information from the head when following gaze and point to the importance of separating information from the eyes and the head when studying social perception in ASD. © 2016 Thorup et al. Source

Ahlin J.,Karolinska Institutet | Hallgren M.,Karolinska Institutet | Ojehagen A.,Lund University | Kallmen H.,Karolinska Institutet | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health

Background: Alcohol use has been shown to interfere with treatment for depression, but consumption habits are not routinely screened in primary care. To date, few studies have compared the alcohol consumption habits of patients with depression to the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol habits in adults diagnosed with depression in primary care to the general adult population in Sweden. Methods: Nine hundred fourty six patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression, without a primary substance use disorder, in primary care settings located across Sweden completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumptions habits and alcohol related problems in the depressed sample were compared to those in the general adult population (n = 663). Analyses were stratified by gender and age. Results: Ratings of alcohol problems and measures of hazardous drinking and binge drinking were significantly higher among patients seeking treatment for depression in primary care compared to the general population. Male patients scored higher on the AUDIT total and AUDIT-C (consumption) subscale than men in the general population. Compared to younger adults (aged 17-27) older depressed adults (aged 28-50 and 51-71) exhibited higher rates of consumption and problems related to alcohol. Conclusions: Compared to the general adult population, consumption and problems related to alcohol use were substantially higher among patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care. Routine screening of alcohol use in primary care is recommended for patients presenting with depression. © 2015 Åhlin et al. Source

Carrard I.,University of Geneva | Fernandez-Aranda F.,CIBER ISCIII | Lam T.,Netunion | Liwowsky I.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 5 more authors.
European Eating Disorders Review

Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the use of an online guided self-treatment programme for bulimia bulimia nervosa (BN) and to determine predictors of outcome. Data were collected in four European countries where the programme was simultaneously used. Method: One hundred and twenty-seven BN or subthreshold BN female patients (mean age of 24.7 years) participated in a 4-month intervention using a CBT based online-guided self-help programme. Contact during the treatment period included weekly e-mails with a coach. Assessment: Measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-90R). Results: Severity of eating disorders symptoms and general psychopathology improved significantly. Twenty-three per cent of patients were symptom free at the end of treatment. The dropout rate was 25.2%. A better score of general psychological health was a predictor of a better outcome. Conclusions: This study encourages further developments and research on innovative therapy approaches, particularly for those disorders such as BN, with difficult therapy and unclear prognosis. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Source

de Schipper E.,Paediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit | de Schipper E.,Center for Psychiatry Research | Lundequist A.,Paediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit | Lundequist A.,Center for Psychiatry Research | And 16 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Bihlar Muld B.,SiS Institution Horno | Bihlar Muld B.,Karolinska Institutet | Jokinen J.,Karolinska Institutet | Jokinen J.,Umea University | And 3 more authors.
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based skills training has been developed and previously evaluated for adults with ADHD in a psychiatric outpatient context. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBT-based skills training as a voluntary intervention for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to severe substance abuse. Forty sufficiently detoxified men with ADHD in compulsory care due to life-threatening substance use disorder (SUD) were included in DBT-based skills training groups. Self- and staff-rating scales were administered before and after the treatment. The refusal rate was 42.9 %. Of those who started the DBT-based skills training, 70 % completed the treatment (attendance at ≥75 % of the sessions). The treatment acceptability was good. Both ADHD and psychiatric symptoms decreased from pre- to post-intervention in self-ratings, but not in staff ratings. The patients reported improved general well-being. The correlation between self- and staff ratings was poor. Motivation for voluntary nonpharmacological treatment was low in a compulsory care context. However, the results indicate that a DBT-based skills training program for adults with ADHD may be feasible for some patients with ADHD in combination with SUD in compulsory care, provided that considerable resources are allocated with adjustments to the target group and compulsory care context. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien Source

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