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Weine S.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Weine S.,Psychiatric Institute | Bahromov M.,Research Center | Loue S.,Case Western Reserve University | Owens L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

Little is known about the role of trauma and PTSD symptoms in the context of migration-associated HIV risk behaviors. A survey of Tajik married male seasonal labor migrants in Moscow was completed by 200 workers from 4 bazaars and 200 workers from 18 construction sites as part of a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) study. The mean PC-PTSD score was 1.2 with one-quarter of migrants scoring at or above the cutoff of 3 indicating likely PTSD diagnosis. PC-PTSD score was directly correlated with both direct and indirect trauma exposure, but PC-PTSD score did not predict either HIV sexual risk behaviors or HIV protective behaviors. HIV sexual risk behavior was associated with higher indirect trauma exposure. PC-PTSD score was associated with some indicators of increased caution (e.g., more talking with partners about HIV and condoms; more use of condom when drinking). Qualitative findings were used to illustrate the differences between direct and indirect traumas in terms of HIV sexual risk. The study findings call for future efforts to address labor migrant's mental health needs and to integrate trauma dimensions into HIV prevention. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Frohlich S.,Mathematical Institute | Franco C.A.,Psychiatric Institute
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

This paper is the continuation of a study about Consciousness as a resulting function between attention and luminosity, presented at the Neuroscience International Congress, which was held in the city of Natal, in Brazil, in 2006. There it was described how visual Consciousness is generated by the interaction of the cortical area activity through FFS (Feedforward Sweep Processes), RP (Recurrent Processes) andWSRP (Wide Spread Recurrent Processes), and its relationship with the luminosity that hits the eyes. We have applied the reciprocal interaction model, which says that the eye reacts to luminosity through the regulation of sleep-awake states through EEG wave synchronization; this, in turn, is regulated by the thalamic cortical neural activity from the brainstem monoaminergic and cholinergic nuclei. Such an understanding has led us to construct a consciousness model which can be represented by an orthogonal graph. Through this model, we can represent all states of human consciousness (emotional consciousness, unconsciousness states, dreaming states, awareness states, pre-consciousness states and others) making it possible, in theory, to construct a Consciousness parameter which yields to the understanding of consciousness state observation without a subjective approach to experience. We have also applied on this orthogonal graph the Quantum Orch OR Model. According to it, subjective, phenomenal conscious vision depends on quantum computation in microtubules where the quantum is the smallest quantity of radiant energy, in a scale in which matter and energy interact. This model helps us to build the vertical axe of the consciousness orthogonal graph, a cholinergic-aminergic scale, in which activation triggers the quantum mechanismrelevant to the consciousness phenomenon. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

News Article | September 1, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

The legacy of World War II and the Holocaust continues to be unearthed, 70 years after the final bombs were dropped, the gates to the extermination camps opened. Body parts and brains of the victims of Nazi doctors were found at the Max Planck Psychiatric Institute during renovations last year, according to The Daily Mail. The remains are believed to have come from the work of Josef Mengele, the “Angel of Death” of Auschwitz infamous for his sadistic experiments on twins and children. The gruesome discovery was found during renovation work at the Munich facility. In a separate ongoing dig, skulls and bones with glue on them have been found in Berlin, about 100 yards away from what was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Human Heredity and Eugenics during the Nazi regime, according to The Associated Press. Mengele, the most infamous SS doctor at the death camp in Poland from 1943 until the end of World War II, escaped Allied investigators and justice for decades, until his remains were disinterred in Brazil and identified in 1985. The Munich and Berlin discoveries also follow a revelation in France: the identification of the remains of 86 victims of the Holocaust on the shelves of the University of Strasbourg last year. Some of those victims were identified, based on tattoos and biometrics on file in the World War II records. The Mack Planck Society ordered a complete review of its specimens, since the discovery of the brains in its Munich-based collection. "The Max Planck Society has accepted a difficult legacy of its predecessor organziation, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society," said Martin Stratmann, the current president of the organization. "We are well aware of the special responsibility that it entails." Mengele remained in Germany and under the radar of war crimes prosecutors until 1949, when he crossed the border to Austria and then fled to Argentina. He lived under his real name in Buenos Aires for about a decade, until the Israeli capture of fellow Nazi Adolf Eichmann prompted his escape to Paraguay and then Brazil. German sympathizers hosted him and kept his identity a secret. Mengele had a stroke and drowned while swimming in 1979. He was buried under the pseudonym Wolfgang Gerhard. His remains were identified in 1985. The Nazi doctor's remains have been stored in a sack at a Brazilian police moruge for decades. In a twist, they are going to be used to teach medical students in the South American country, a doctor announced earlier this year.

Dong E.,Psychiatric Institute | Chen Y.,Psychiatric Institute | Gavin D.P.,Psychiatric Institute | Grayson D.R.,Psychiatric Institute | Guidotti A.,Psychiatric Institute
Epigenetics | Year: 2010

The methylation and demethylation of CpG dinucleotides that are embedded in promoters play an important role in controlling gene transcription. In the mammalian brain, cpG promoter methylation is a postreplicative process mediated by a group of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), such as DNMT1 and DNMT3a, DNMT3b. several studies demonstrate that in addition to DNMTs, promoter methylation in the brain can be regulated by a putative DNA demethylation process that specifically removes the methyl group from the carbon-5 of cytosines. To test the existence of a possible active DNA demethylation activity in postmitotic neuronal or glial cells, we incubated an SssI methylated mouse reelin (Reln) promoter fragment (-720 to +140) with nuclear extracts from the mouse frontal cortex (FC). We observed the presence of DNA demethylation activity, which was increased in FC nuclear extracts from mice treated with valproate (VPA, 2.2 mmol/kg, twice a day for 3 days). VPA not only reduces anxiety and cognitive deficits and other symptoms in bipolar disorder (BP) disorder and schizophrenia (SZ) patients but also upregulates Reln and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad67) mRNa/protein expression by reducing the methylation of their promoters. We believe that the identification of an enzyme in brain that facilitates DNA-demethylation and an understanding of how drugs induce DNA demethylation are crucial to progress in a new line of pharmacological interventions to treat neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

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