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Amersfoort, Netherlands

Berghuis H.,z Centraal Psychiatric Center | Kamphuis J.H.,University of Amsterdam | Verheul R.,University of Amsterdam
Journal of Personality Disorders | Year: 2012

The distinction between general personality dysfunctioning (GPD) and specific personality traits (SPT) is an important focus of attention in the proposed revisions of the DSM-5. The present study explores the distinction between GPD and SPT using the self-report questionnaires General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) and Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP-118) to measure GPD, and the NEOPI- R to measure SPT. The sample consisted of 424 psychiatric patients. Using principal component analysis, GPD and SPT appeared to be clearly distinct components of personality. Our GPD model consisted of three factors, i.e., Self-identity dysfunctioning, Relational dysfunctioning, and Prosocial functioning. This model remained by and large intact when combined with SFT factors. Our findings support the distinction between personality traits and personality dysfunction laid down in the recent proposal by the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. © 2012 The Guilford Press.


Berghuis H.,z Centraal Psychiatric Center | Kamphuis J.H.,University of Amsterdam | Verheul R.,University of Amsterdam | Verheul R.,Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy | Year: 2013

This study presents a psychometric evaluation of the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD), a self-report questionnaire for assessing the core components of personality dysfunction on the basis of Livesley's (2003) adaptive failure model. Analysis of samples from a general (n=196) and a clinical population (n=280) from Canada and the Netherlands, respectively, found a very similar two-component structure consistent with the two core components of personality dysfunction proposed by the model, namely, self-pathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Moreover, the GAPD discriminated between patients diagnosed with and without Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) personality disorder(s) and demonstrated discriminative power in detecting the severity of personality pathology. Correlations with a DSM-IV symptom measure and a pathological traits model suggest partial conceptual overlap. Although further testing is indicated, the present findings suggest the GAPD is suitable for assessing the core components of personality dysfunction. It may contribute to a two-step integrated assessment of personality pathology that assesses both personality dysfunction and personality traits. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Tenback D.E.,z Centraal Psychiatric Center | Tenback D.E.,University Utrecht | van Harten P.N.,z Centraal Psychiatric Center | van Harten P.N.,Maastricht University
International Review of Neurobiology | Year: 2011

Dyskinesia can develop in patients with schizophrenia in the course of the disease with or without the use of antipsychotics.In patients with psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) can develop in patients treated with antipsychotics or other drugs with dopamine D2 blocking properties.Spontaneous Dyskinesia in antipsychotic naive patients with schizophrenia ranges from 4 to 40%, depending on the age and duration of the illness. Moreover, siblings of patients with schizophrenia have higher prevalence rates of dyskinesia than matched controls.Incidence rates of TD due to dopamine blocking properties vary due to the sample population and the affinity for the dopamine blocker to the D2 dopamine receptor.Once developed, TD seems very persistent, the course of TD might be mediated by the affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor.Risk factors for TD in the literature are numerous, in this chapter only replicated and risk factors from longitudinal studies will be reported limiting the amount of risk factors.Furthermore only meta-analyses on genetic factors related to TD will be discussed due to inconsistency of genetic effects because of sample heterogeneity, small effects of multiple genes, (epi)genetic interactions,pleiotropy and small sample size.Finally the concept " Tardive Dyskinesia" will be discussed and the influence hereof on the above mentioned factors. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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