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Patent
Psychemedics Corporation | Date: 2014-08-28

Methods for assessing the condition of keratinized structures, including hair, in particular methods to determine the condition of keratinized structures in relation to suitability for analysis of analytes of interest in a test sample, are presented. The methods comprise contacting the keratinized structure with a non-proteolytic reducing agent and an optional proteolytic agent. The methods further include inspection of the hair sample, or measurement of free protein eluted from the keratinized structure, after reduction and optional proteolysis to determine condition prior to analyte identification and quantitation by known techniques such as immunoassays.


Patent
Psychemedics Corporation | Date: 2015-03-20

Methods for assessing the condition of keratinized structures, including hair, in particular methods to determine the condition of keratinized structures in relation to suitability for analysis of analytes of interest in a test sample, are presented. The methods comprise contacting the keratinized structure with a non-proteolytic reducing agent and an optional proteolytic agent. The methods further include inspection of the hair sample, or measurement of free protein eluted from the keratinized structure, after reduction and optional proteolysis to determine condition prior to analyte identification and quantitation by known techniques such as immunoassays.


Patent
Psychemedics Corporation | Date: 2013-06-28

Compositions and methods for detecting the presence and/or amount of one or more analytes, including analytes such as drugs of abuse in a hair wash sample are provided. The compositions include two or more analytes associated with a solid phase, e.g., a particle or a multiwell plate. The compositions and methods also allow the simultaneous, tandem, or serial determination of the presence and/or amount of two or more analytes of interest in a hair wash sample.


Del Mar Ramirez Fernandez M.,National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology | Wille S.M.R.,National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology | Di Fazio V.,National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology | Kummer N.,National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology | And 2 more authors.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2015

Background: A sensitive and reproducible Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the 29 commonly prescribed benzodiazepines and z-drugs in hair. The method was validated according to international guidelines. Methods: After decontamination (with dichloromethane and water), compounds were extracted from 20 mg of pulverized hair samples using methanol at 45°C and sonication for 2 hours. The drugs were recovered by liquid-liquid extraction using 1-chlorobutane, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted with 100 mL of methanol before injection in the UPLC-MS/MS. Results: The applied gradient ensured the elution of all the compounds within 7 minutes using 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol as mobile phase. The lower limit of quantification values ranged from 0.5 to 5 pg/mg of hair. Calibration curves were linear for almost all the compounds and ranged from the limit of quantification to 620 pg/mg hair. The bias and relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday imprecision were lower than 15% in 3 fortified "in-house" quality control samples, 1 external quality control sample, and 1 authentic hair sample (from a diazepam user). No significant matrix effects were observed for most of the compounds, and the extraction efficiency of the sample cleanup procedure ranged from 19% to 82% with a relative standard deviation, 15% [except for clobazam (16%), loprazolam (20%), brotizolam (18%), and 7-aminoclonazepam (20%)]. The method was then successfully applied to the analysis of 40 hair samples from the workplace drug testing, containing alprazolam, estazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, zolpidem, and desalkylflurazepam (and metabolites). Conclusions: The method was completely validated and can be of interest to clinical and forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Castaneto M.S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Barnes A.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Scheidweiler K.B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Schaffer M.,Psychemedics Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE:: Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution, and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social, and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing. The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. METHODS:: Ninety-one children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA, and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS:: Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine, and hair were 6.9%, 22.1%, and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n = 5), and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. CONCLUSIONS:: Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP, and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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