Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma

San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Argentina

Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma

San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Argentina
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Ojeda G.N.,National University of Santa | Ojeda G.N.,CONICET | Amavet P.S.,National University of Santa | Amavet P.S.,CONICET | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2017

The yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) is a reptile from South America and 1 of the 2 crocodilian species present in Argentina. The degradation of their natural habitat and strong hunting pressure led to a sharp numerical decline of wild populations. Nowadays, C. yacare is included in Appendix II of CITES, and ranching practices in some areas in Argentina are helping hatching success. In this context, it is important to better understand the population structure and mating system of the species. To do this, we amplified 10 microsatellite markers (SSRs) in 148 individuals of 13 C. yacare nests. All of the markers were polymorphic with 2-12 alleles per locus, with allelic sizes ranging between 154 and 400 bp and medium levels of polymorphism (Ho = 0.152-0.551 and He = 0.221-0.621). We were able to determine the maternal genotype in 9 out of 13 nests. In 6 of them we found more than 1 paternal genotype, with a maximum of 3 fathers for a single nest. This study is the first to provide evidence of multiple paternity behavior. These findings will be useful to improve management and conservation strategies for the species. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved.

Cedillo-Leal C.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | Simoncini M.S.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | Simoncini M.S.,CONICET | Leiva P.M.L.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Egg inundation often results in poor hatching success in crocodylians. However, how tolerant eggs are to submergence, and/or how eggshell ultrastructure may affect embryo survival when inundated, are not well understood. In this study, our objective was to determine if embryo survival in Caiman latirostris is affected by eggshell surface roughness, when eggs are submerged under water. Tolerance to inundation was tested early (day 30) versus late (day 60) in development, using eight clutches (four per time treatments), subdivided into four groups: (N = 9 per clutch per treatment; 9 × 4 = 36 eggs per group). ‘Rough’ eggshell represented the natural, unmodified eggshell surface structure. ‘Smooth’ eggshell surface structure was created by mechanically sanding the natural rough surface to remove surface columnar elements and secondary layer features, e.g. irregularities that result in ‘roughness’. When inundated by submerging eggs under water for 10 h at day 30, ‘smooth’ eggshell structure resulted in more than twice as many dead embryos (16 versus 6, smooth versus rough; N = 36), and fewer than half as many healthy embryos (6 versus 13, smooth versus rough, respectively; N = 36). By contrast, at day 60, inundation resulted in very low hatching success, regardless of eggshell surface structure. Only two hatchlings survived the inundation, notably in the untreated group with intact, rough eggshells. Inundation produced a high rate of malformations (58% at day 30), but did not affect hatchling size. Our results indicate that eggshell roughness enhances embryo survival when eggs are inundated early in development, but not late in development. Apparently, the natural surface ‘roughness’ entraps air bubbles at the eggshell surface during inundation, thereby facilitating gas exchange through the eggshell even when the egg is submerged under water. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Imhoff C.,Laboratorio Of Genetica | Imhoff C.,CONICET | Giri F.,CONICET | Siroski P.,CONICET | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Morphology | Year: 2016

The study of the cephalic shape of crocodilian is relevant in the fields of ecology, systematics, evolution, and conservation. Therefore, the integration of geometric analysis within quantitative genetics allows the evaluation of the inheritable shape components. In this study, the dorsal cephalic region of 210 Caiman latirostris hatchlings was analyzed from seven populations in Santa Fe, Argentina, to detect intra-, and inter-population phenotypic variability, and to determine the heritability of biological shape and size, using newly available geometric morphometric tools. The principal component analysis showed two configurations of cephalic shape that could be related to sexual dimorphism. In the canonical variate analysis, Procrustes distances between groups indicated that there are differences in shape among populations. Furthermore, the method of partial least squares indicated a covariation between cephalic shape and environmental variables. Regarding to CS of the skull we found significant differences among populations, moreover the partial least squares was also significant. Estimates of the heritability of shape and size were high, indicating that the components of these features are susceptible to the selection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Siroski P.A.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | Siroski P.A.,CONICET | Poletta G.L.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | Poletta G.L.,CONICET | And 4 more authors.
Acta Herpetologica | Year: 2014

Chitin is an abundant bio-polymer present as a structural component of many organisms such as arthropods, nematodes, mollusks, insects, and fungi, among others. Chitinolytic enzymes are synthesized for organisms to defend themselves against chitin-containing pathogens. Chitotriosidase (CHT) is a chitinase enzyme and one of the main proteins secreted by activated macrophages. It plays an important role in mechanisms of immunity by hydrolyzing chitin, thus protecting against chitin-containing pathogens. In this study, CHT was detected in Caiman latirostris plasma, and characterized under laboratory controlled conditions of temperature, reaction time, plasma concentration, pH and salinity. The results complement other immunological studies performed in caimans and demonstrate that they possess an efficient and well-developed immune system that resists the attack of some pathogens. Based on the current knowledge of the properties and homologies of CHT, it would be highly valuable to evaluate its possible therapeutic application in the veterinary clinical setting. © Firenze University Press.

Larriera A.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | Siroski P.A.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | Siroski P.A.,CONICET | Rueda E.C.,Laboratorio Of Genetica | And 6 more authors.
Amphibia Reptilia | Year: 2015

Wild populations of Caiman latirostris are subject to sustainable use programs in Argentina, becoming a species with important impact in the regional economy, based in their skin and meat. Genetic studies are fundamental to acquire information on important parameters for conservation and management, which may be obtained from analysis of molecular markers. Some microsatellites have been previously isolated in this species, but due to some difficulties in using them, we obtained new ones using Next Generation Sequencing approach. This study reports eight new microsatellites for C. latirostris and tests their utility in a related species, Caiman yacare, with successful application in population genetics and mating systems studies. In addition, we shared data about a novel and fast bioinformatics tool to find microsatellites and to design their corresponding primers.

Burella P.M.,National University of Santa | Burella P.M.,CONICET | Simoniello M.F.,National University of Santa | Poletta G.L.,National University of Santa | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2016

The agricultural expansion over the past decades, along with the associated increase in the use of pesticides, represents a high risk for many wild species. Caiman latirostris is a South American caiman with many features that make it highly vulnerable to pesticide exposure. Considering previous finding on the genotoxicity of the glyphosate-based formulation Roundup® in this species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible stage-dependent effect of this compound on C. latirostris embryos through the Comet assay (CA), micronuclei (MN), and nuclear abnormalities (NA) tests. Caiman eggs were exposed to three effective concentrations of Roundup® (750, 1250, 1750 µg/egg) in three different stages of the incubation period (total duration 70 ± 3 days at 31 ± 2 °C) of approximately 23 days each. A statistically significant difference in DNA damage determined by the CA was found between groups exposed to different concentrations of RU (p < 0.05) and the negative control, but no difference was observed among the three stages of exposure within any treatment (p > 0.05). There was no differences in the MN or NA frequencies between the different groups and the negative control (p > 0.05), nor among the different stages within each treatment. The results obtained in this study indicate that RU produce DNA damage on C. latirostris embryos independently of the developmental stage where the exposure occurs, implying an important risk for the species during all its period of development, when pesticide application is at maximum rate. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Amavet P.S.,National University of Santa | Amavet P.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Amavet P.S.,Proyecto Yacare Laboratorio Of Zoologia Aplicada Anexo Vertebrados Fhuc Unl Maspyma | Vilardi J.C.,University of Buenos Aires | And 6 more authors.
Amphibia Reptilia | Year: 2012

The knowledge about reproductive strategies of a species contributes to their conservation. Multiple paternity is a reproductive behavior increasing effective population size, which could increase genetic diversity particularly in populations submitted to bottlenecks events. In Argentina, wild populations of Caiman latirostris are subject of a management plan devoted to their preservation and sustainable utilization based on its commercial interest. This program started in response to the evident numeric reduction of the populations, as a consequence of hunting pressure and habitat modification; it had a remarkable success in population recovery allowing the commercial use of C. latirostris. Data on reproductive behavior of C. latirostris are limited because mating occurs in the water and the information about their genetic diversity is scarce too. Our specific aims were to study the mating system and population genetic structure applying microsatellite markers in twelve C. latirostris families. The obtained results showed highly significant difference among populations and a lack of correspondence between geographical distance and genetic differentiation suggesting that populations of C. latirostris represent unstable metapopulations. In the paternity analysis was detected more than one father in two nests, which could be explained by capacity of storage sperm, proposed in females of a related species. The behavior of multipaternity could contribute to maintain viable populations of C. latirostris, since the maintenance of genetic variability within populations could help increase their capacity to respond to selective pressure. Further studies employing genetic and behavioral framework are needed to better understand the reproductive biology of C. latirostris. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

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